Bisaldeo Temple

Tonk, Rajasthan

The Bisaldeo Temple in the Tonk district of Rajasthan is a 12th-century CE temple that is popularly revered as the Gokarneshwara (Gokarnesvara) Mahadev in and around the region. Located near the Bisalpur dam on the Banas river, 150 km from Jaipur, the courtyard of the temple is partly submerged in the river water most of time around the year.

Koli Cuisine: An Introduction

Food plays a fundamental role in all human cultures. It is not just a means of sustenance but also serves as a means of expressing oneself, connecting with others, and preserving the cultural history of a region or community. It is a way of life that is passed down through generations, an intangible heritage. Drawing from these historical and cultural roots, the food serves as a recollection of bygone eras, and simultaneously, the related cooking methods and social conventions provide invaluable insight into the values and material conditions of the people making it.

Harshnath Temple

Sikar, Rajasthan

Located 14km from the district headquarters and perched atop the Harsha Hill in the Sikar district of Rajasthan, the Harshnath Temple Complex is a protected site under the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). The complex comprises many architectural remnants from the 10th to 18th century CE. At the heart of the complex, lies the historical Harshnath Temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva.

Bottle Masala

If you have lived in Mumbai long enough, it is hard not to have come across East Indian cuisine, which, over time, has adapted itself to reflect a mixture of Portuguese, British and Maharashtrian culinary influences. Quintessential to the aroma and taste of East Indian cuisine is a potent masala prepared from a variety of exotic spices, known colloquially as bottle masala. The name derives from the empty beer bottles in which the masala was packed and stored to keep them airtight and fresh. The masala is a staple in East Indian community kitchens and is used in the preparation of various dishes.

Erangal Village

The antiquity of Erangal is evinced from certain archaeological remains and its mention in the early medieval texts of the region. One such text is the Mahikavatichi Bakhar, a 12th century chronicle detailing the administrative setup of the contemporary Sashthi or Salcette island. The text refers to Erangal as ‘Yergan’, which was assigned to an administrator named ‘Singhe Sheshvanshi’.

Babhai Gaothan

The modern-day Gaothan of Babhai is nestled between Lokmanya Tilak Road and Chandavarkar Road, commanding attention with its distinctive blend of traditional dwellings amidst the backdrop of modern buildings and high rises. It stands as an urban village inhabited by the Pachkalshi or the Somvanshi Kshatriya Pathare community, representing one of the rare enclaves of this community within Mumbai.

Harshatmata Temple

Dausa, Rajasthan

The Harshatmata Temple in Abhaneri, situated off the Delhi-Jaipur highway—six kilometres from the Bandikui railway station—in the Dausa district of Rajasthan, dates back to the 9th century CE. The temple was built under the reign of the Shakambhari Chahamanas, who were the feudatories of the Gurjara-Pratiharas. The temple stands as an example of the Maha-Maru style architecture in the region. The temple is dedicated to the worship of Harshat Mata, or Harasiddhi Devi who is considered the ishta (main or presiding deity) of Abhaneri.

The Kolis - An Introduction

For a person living in Mumbai, the term Koli often evokes images of the sea, fishes, and fisherwomen. However, the term Koli is an umbrella term encompassing various communities that reside in the hinterlands and are not necessarily involved in fishing occupations.The Kolis are an indigenous group inhabiting parts of Gujarat, Northern Konkan, the Sahyadris, the Deccan, and other regions of the country. The term ‘indigenous peoples’ can simply be understood as natives of the land who have inhabited the region since time immemorial.

Arthuna Group of Temples

Banswara, Rajasthan

A group of about twelve temples is located in the small village of Arthuna in the Garhi tehsil of the Banswara district of Rajasthan. It is nestled in the historical region of Vagada, and is one of the forested zones with rich flora and fauna. Several of the temples, for instance, the Hanuman Garhi Temple complex, Mandaleshwar Temple, Someshwar Mahadev Temple and Jain Temple, among a few others are large temple complexes, built in the panchayatana system, where the main temple is surrounded by four subsidiary shrines. Arthuna mainly flourished as the capital of the Paramaras of Vagada, a branch of the imperial Paramaras of Malwa. As evident from the eleventh-twelfth century inscriptions, Paramara rulers Chamundaraja and Vijayraja, were instrumental in patronizing the temples in Arthuna.


Mazagon’s proximity to the sea has historically made it an important area for trade, shipping, and naval activities. Mazagon is home to the historic Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL), one of India's leading shipyards, and its Koliwada is among the oldest in Mumbai. Apart from the shipbuilding industry, Mazagon is an important transport hub, which facilitates the movement of workers and migrants. It is home to a mix of communities, including Parsis, Muslims, East Indian Catholics, and others, contributing to its cosmopolitan mood.

The Extraordinary Life of Shri Dhirubhai Ambani


Dhirubhai Ambani (28 December 1932 – 6 July 2002) epitomised the dauntless entrepreneurial spirit of a visionary always on the march to change the destiny of a nation. Acclaimed as the top businessman of the 20th century and lauded for his dynamic, pioneering and innovative genius, Dhirubhai was an inspiring leader with sterling qualities. His success story fired the imagination of a generation of Indian entrepreneurs, business leaders and progressive companies. For many, he still remains an icon, a role model to be emulated.

Reliance Industries Limited

A historical timeline

Reliance Industries Limited, formerly established as 'Reliance Commercial Corporation' in the year 1966, was the dream project of Shri Dhirubhai Ambani who started this company as a polyester firm. Within a few years, Reliance grew into diverse businesses including energy, petrochemicals, natural gas, retail, telecommunications, mass media, etc.


National Archives of India

Abhilekh Patal Portal for Access to Archives and Learning is an initiative of NAI to make its rich treasure of Indian Archival Records available to one and all at the click of a button. Abhilekh Patal contains the reference media of more than 2.7 million files held by the National Archives of India.

East Indians on the West Coast

In the 2010s, a rough survey of East Indians in Mumbai revealed that there were 2.5 lakh in the city, 80,000 in Vasai and 12,000 in Thane. Why, one might ask, would a Christian community living on India’s west coast call itself East Indian?

Mumbai’s Kolis: Indigenous as well as Migrant?

Certain communities in the metropolis – such as the Kolis and the East Indians, for instance – consider themselves its original inhabitants and indigenous to the city. The implications of the term indigeneity, though, do call for a deeper investigation for it has sometimes been used to differentiate between insiders and outsiders, us and them.

St. Thomas Cathedral

Inaugurated in 1718, St. Thomas Cathedral is the first Anglican church in Bombay (Mumbai), established to provide church services to the earliest British settlers from the East India Company. The church was named in honor of St. Thomas Apostle, one of the 12 disciples of Jesus Christ and the Apostle of India. Situated opposite Horniman Circle Garden, this historic and beautiful place of worship is nearly lost among the hustle and bustle of its surroundings.

Ballard Estate

Ballard Estate is one of the most coveted commercial areas in Mumbai, with broad, tree-lined thoroughfares and airy, spacious offices. Land reclamation for Ballard Estate started in 1904 using filling material excavated during the laying out of Alexandra Docks. Bombay Port Trust commissioned George Wittet with the task of developing Ballard Estate. As consulting architect, Wittet adopted the Baroque Revival style, which was in vogue in England during the reign of King Edward VII (r. 1901-10).

In and Around the Horniman Circle

Horniman Circle precinct in the Fort area of Mumbai surrounds itself with many old and vintage structures, including the Asiatic Society of Bombay, St Thomas Cathedral, Indian Navy's Western Command Headquarters (where Manor House once stood during the Portuguese era), etc. In its early history, Horniman Circle was called as Bombay Green, from where cotton and opium trade took place. Post-independence, it got renamed to Horniman Circle, taking its name from BG Horniman, a British journalist and editor of Bombay Chronicle, a daily started by Sir Pherozeshah Mehta.

Banganga Tank

Banganga Tank is located on the western fringes of Malabar Hill, close to Raj Bhawan. The neighborhood around Banganga Tank is the oldest continuously inhabited region in Bombay, a site of great spiritual significance to Hindus. For centuries, Hindus have made a pilgrimage to the Walkeshwar Temple and the now-destroyed Shri Gundi stone at Malabar Point, which gave sanctity to the hill from a very early age.

Jijamata Udyan

Mumbai's renowned Victoria Garden

Veermata Jijabai Bhonsle Udyan, formerly known as Victoria Gardens, was founded to commemorate Queen Victoria. It was earlier established as a botanical garden by the Agri Horticultural Society of Western India in a large plot at Sewri in 1835 but was later shifted to Mount Estate, Byculla, in 1861. The garden was opened to the public in 1862 by Lady Frere, wife of Sir Bartle Frere, who was the Governor of Bombay during the 1860s.

Art Deco at Oval

The era after 1920s in Bombay is recognized by the advent of Art Deco which spread across the city and influenced every aspect of the city life. Art Deco derived its name from a World Fair held in Paris in 1925, called as ‘Exponential Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes’. It was a combination of both traditional and modern styles, introducing new forms of designs in Bombay’s architecture. The Indian Institute of Architects (IIA) played a significant role in expanding the Art Deco movement in India, as it held the first architectural exhibition called as the ‘Ideal Home Exhibition’ in the Town Hall in November 1937, introducing the audiences to the world of Art Deco. Mumbai became a hub of Art Deco and was finally conferred with the UNESCO World Heritage status for the Art Deco buildings around the Oval Maidan in Churchgate in 2016, cementing the legacy of Bombay’s architecture.

Flora Fountain

The Flora Fountain, one of the historical water fountains of Mumbai, was installed in 1869 at the intersection of Dadabhai Naoroji Road, Mahatma Gandhi Road, and Veer Nariman Road. It was designed and executed entirely in England and transported via ship to India. The fountain is named after Flora, the Roman goddess of flowers and the season of spring. The statue of the goddess stands at the highest level of the fountain.

Victorian Gothic at BMC

Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (also known as Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai) is India's richest municipal corporation and responsible for developing the civic infrastructure of the city and tax collection. It was established with the passing of the Bombay Municipal Corporation Act in 1888. The headquarters are based at the BMC building, which also feature (along with the Gateway of India) on the seal of the corporation.

Krishna and Rukmini's wedding

The romance and love of Krishna and Radha are legendary. Yet, the story behind Krishna's wedding to his first wife Rukmini, as narrated in the Hindu scripture of Bhagavata, is equally interesting. A festival banner from the year 1800 shows the sequence of events that transpired during the wedding.

Sri Chennakeshava Temple of Beluru

This online exhibit gives a glimpse into the marvellous temple at Beluru, Karnataka, through numerous images captured by many history enthusiasts. An artistic and cultural example of the Hoysala architecture, Sri Chennakeshava temple was built by King Vishnuvardhana in 1117. The temple complex went through modifications for over hundred years to become the architectural marvel that it is today.

Chennakeshava Temple Beluru

Temple art, architecture and ground plan

This exhibit goes into the architectural and artistic details of the Beluru Chennakeshava Temple. Scholar Adam Hardy classifies the Hoysala temples as the Karnata Dravida tradition. Hoysala temples typically have a Mantapa - an entrance porch called Navaranga, Vimana - the shrine built above the sanctum, and a Jagati - a platform for circumnavigation. The outer walls are all carved with extensive sculptures and reliefs.

Hoysaleshwara Temple


Hoysaleshwara Temple is a 12th-century Shaivite temple and is the largest monument in Halebeedu, the former capital of the Hoysala Empire. It is unique for the richness, finesse and beauty of the carved friezes that adorn its exterior walls.

Amrutheshwara Temple, Amruthapura

The exquisite Amrutheshwara Temple (also known as Amrutesvara) is located in the village of Amruthapura in Chikmagalur district. Externally, the temple gives a deceptively small look, but visitors are surprised with the number of wonders it holds within. The temple was built in 1196 CE by Amrutheshwara Dandanayaka (commander) under the Hoysala King Veera Ballala II.

Krishna in Indian Artistic Forms

Krishna's valour and his charm as youth are depicted in a multitude of artistic forms in India - from paintings, sculptures, and music, to dance. Stories of Krishna, especially of his childhood, have enthralled artists and commoners for centuries. Puranic scriptures dedicated to Vishnu, namely Bhagavatha Purana and Vishnu Purana, narrate the stories of Krishna at length since he is considered the eighth incarnation of God Vishnu.

Somanathapura Temple

Somanathapura Keshava-Temple is not as massive in size as the Beluru – Halebidu temples, but it is as stunningly beautiful and ornate. Built in 1258 CE, more than 100 years after the Belur – Halebidu temples, it is a testament to the continued patronage of arts, crafts, and temple building by the Hoysala rulers.


A hidden Hoysala gem

Aralaguppe in Karnataka is a temple built by King Veera Someshwara in 1250 and dedicated to God Vishnu. A noteworthy feature of the temple is the many complex forms of Vishnu. Vishnu is commonly identified by the four primary objects he holds, Shankha (conch), Chakra (discus), Gada (mace), and Padma (lotus). However, in Aralaguppe Vishnu is depicted with unusual objects such as sugarcane, mace, noose, mortar, etc. These sculptures of Vishnu indicate that the sculptors, along with their artistic prowess, also possessed a deep theological understanding of the Hindu scriptures.

Ramayana in Painting Tradition

Ramayana is one of the great epics of India. An earthen vase from 1800s showcased in this exhibit pictorially represents an important incident from Ramayana. The accompanying essay in this special collection deciphers and textually narrates the incident.


Mahishasura slayer Durga in Indian art

Goddess Durga is one of the most popular deities in India. Thus, she is also the subject of various art forms, from sculptures to paintings to temple art. In this exhibit, know the story behind this much-revered Goddess through art.

Ellora Caves

An enigma in the cave architecture of India, Ellora, situated in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, represents a phase of aesthetic appeal and a model of religious harmony and cohesiveness that existed during the early medieval period in the Deccan region. Through images, we explore the architectural journey of Ellora in this collection.

Visual History of Business and Trade in India

India has a varied as well as rich tradition and vast history of Trade, Commerce, Business Corporate and Industry. This collection attempts to provide an insightful narrative of the ancient, medieval, colonial, pre-independence, post-independence, and the business sectors, significant contributors etc. along with an impressive cohort of images.

Edward Feigenbaum Papers

The Edward A. Feigenbaum Papers collection primarily concerns his work in artificial intelligence at Stanford University and includes administrative files, correspondence, project files, trip files, proposals, reports, reprints, Artificial Intelligence Lab memos, audio tapes, video tapes, and files on computer programs, including EPAM, DENDRAL, MOLGEN, MYCIN, and others.

Herbert Matter Archive: Modernist Photography and Graphic Design

Herbert Matter was a Swiss-born American photographer and graphic designer known for his innovative work on photomontage in commercial art. His works included retouching and manipulating negative and the common subjects in his works included landscapes, portraits, and still lifes. The Herbert Matter archive spans the years 1937-1984, when Matter was active as a graphic designer and photographer in the United States, until his death at the age of seventy-seven. The archive is large and includes original art work and production files; manuscript materials; film, video and audio media; photographs; books and printed matter; correspondence; and negatives and transparencies of his commercial and non-commercial photographic work.

Andy Warhol Photography Archive

Andy Warhol was an American artist and also a well-known photographer and a dominant personality in the visual art movement, known as Pop Art. Beginning his career as a commercial illustrator, in his later life he earned recognition as an influential and controversial artist. Drawing on a trove of over 3,600 contact sheets featuring 130,000 photographic exposures acquired in 2014 from The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc., the images document Warhol's daily life. This collection of Warhol’s contact sheets – printed thumbnails from a roll of film – represents the complete range of the American artist’s black-and-white photographic practice from 1976 until his unexpected death in 1987.

Computer Science @ Stanford

This exhibit pulls together several collections of photographs documenting the history of computer science at Stanford. More materials will be added as they are digitized and processed.

GATT Digital Library 1947-1994

Welcome to the GATT Digital Library. This site provides access to documents and information of and about the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), an organization that promoted international commerce and the reduction of trade barriers among member states from 1947-1994. This exhibit includes basic documentation papers regarding the inventory of various non-tariff barriers along with marketing standards and packaging and labeling regulations of different countries.

The History of Artificial Intelligence

The rich archival documentation available in the Stanford Libraries on the history of artificial intelligence includes important film, video and audio resources, as well as traditional print materials and even early computer files. These materials provide access to a variety of events and activities from Stanford, Silicon Valley, or the artificial intelligence community as a whole, including tours of labs and project, robots in action, and public lectures, to name only a few examples. These materials were captured in both non-digital formats, such as film, audio tape, and text, as well as digital files from the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and Stanford University Medical Experimental Computer Resource (SUMEX) project.

Harvard Exhibit

Creating Emerging Markets explores the evolution of business leadership in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle East. At its core are interviews with leaders or former leaders of highly impactful businesses and NGOs.

Mahanal Temple And Math: Menal Group of Temples

Chittorgarh, Rajasthan

The scenic location of the Menal Valley in Rajasthan is home to exquisite temples and monasteries built over four hundred years, ranging from as early as the eighth century up to the fourteenth century CE. Apart from the two large temples, Mahanaleshwar and Suhaveshwar, there are about four to five smaller temples, two monasteries, and several architectural fragments strewn within the premises of the complex.

Seth Bhandasar Jain Temple

Bikaner, Rajasthan

The Seth Bhandasar Jain Temple is situated in Bikaner, Rajasthan, within the older part of the walled city. It resides amidst one of the busiest areas of the city, Bada Bazaar, adjacent to another famous temple of Bikaner, the Lakshmi Nath Temple. Bhandasar Temple is dedicated to the fifth tirthankara (spiritual teacher), Sumatinath, and is affiliated to the Shvetambara Jain tradition.

Charchoma Shiva Temple

Kota, Rajasthan

Protected under the Jaipur Circle of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), the Shiva Temple at Charchoma Maliya is one of the oldest surviving temples in Rajasthan. It has gone several modifications over the period of time up till 19th century CE. The garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum with a flat roofed antarala (vestibule) belong to the late Gupta period (about 7th century CE) are the oldest surviving architectural features of the temple

Suswani Mata Temple at Morkhana

Bikaner, Rajasthan

The Morkhana village, also called as Morkhiyana, is home to an Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) protected temple dedicated to Suswani Ma. The Goddess is believed to be a kuldevi (family deity) of the Surana clan. The original temple of Suswani Mata dates back to the twelfth century CE construction, undergoing restoration and reconstruction multiple times since its inception. Presently, the temple comprises only the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum), with a later added mandapa (closed hall), courtyard, and rest houses.