Harshatmata Temple: A visual walkthrough

Abhaneri is known for its exquisitely carved sculptures that dot the Harshatmata Temple premises and the Chand Baori stepwell. Despite its current dilapidated state, the structures unfailingly attract viewers, prompting contemplation about the rulers, builders, and visitors of its antiquity. The site includes the 9th century CE Harshatmata Temple and the Chand Baori. Today, the temple worships a modern marble statue of Harshat Mata, also known as Harasiddhi Devi. Despite its ruined state, the site preserves marvellous examples of the post-Gupta development in art, along with sculptures of Shakta, Shaiva, and Vaishnava orientation. The temple was built in the Maha-Maru style in the 9th century CE under the patronage of the Shakambhari Chahamanas, who were the feudatories of the Gurjara-Pratiharas. The temple was restored to its modern appearance by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) in the 1940s. Few sculptures survive in situ and are scattered in various museums and private collections. A collection of loose sculptures recovered from the site is also housed at the adjacent Chand Baori. An abundance of depictions of Parvati, Chamunda, Kshemankari, and Durga Mahishasuramardini along with Saptamatrika panels, Ganesha, and Karttikeya have been recovered from the premises of the Harshatmata Temple. Furthermore, the presence of Pradyumna, Aniruddha, and Sankarshana Balarama on the vedibandha (decorative band) suggests Pancharatra worship of Vaikuntha Vishnu. However, the loose shurasenas (warriors) with depictions of Shiva and Durga also indicate a Shakta orientation. Many of these Shakta sculptures, such as Chamunda and Kshemankari, bear stylistic similarities to those seen at the 10th century Ambika Temple in Jagat. Notably, the site has also yielded two Jaina images. One of these is a life-sized fragmentary sculpture of Parshvanatha closely resembling the Deogarh-Gupta tradition. The other is a smaller architectural fragment depicting a Jina in the Kayotsarga pose.

Apart from the loose sculptures, many are still present at the mancha (raised platform) level, and in the gudhamandapa (inner sanctum) of the temple. The mancha boasts of elegant representations of courtly pleasure along with a possible depiction of Kamadeva. The gudhamandapa also depicts scenes of Linga worship, and episodes from Krishna’s life, such as Kaliyamardana (an episode from Hindu mythology where Lord Krishna subdues the serpent Kaliya) as well as Keshinisudana (an episode where Lord Krishna defeats the demon Keshi). Other sculptures from the gudhamandapa also include Trivikrama Vishnu, Narasimha, Varaha, Aniruddha, Surya, and Shiva Natesha, as well as musicians and dancers. The lalatabimba (central lintel) did not survive; however, other lintels from the temple include depictions of Trideva and Shiva-Gauri.

The iconography of Abhaneri’s sculptures positions this temple at a nexus that connects it to the worship patterns and developments of the time under the patronage of the Gurjara-Pratihara. The Harshatmata Temple presents a wondrous example not only of stylistic developments during this time but also of connected patterns of worship in the region.

Moonstone and steps leading up to the first level of the Harshatmata Temple are visible from the approach, specifically from the east side coming from the Chand Baori.
Moonstone and steps leading up to the first level of the Harshatmata Temple are visible from the approach, specifically from the east side coming from the Chand Baori.
Front view of the Harshatmata Temple with steps leading to the temple from the ground level. Also seen is the smaller Nandi shrine in front of the main temple.
Front view of the Harshatmata Temple with steps leading to the temple from the ground level. Also seen is the smaller Nandi shrine in front of the main temple.
Information board in the temple premises installed by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) written in Hindi and English. The board provides information about the Harshat Mata Temple site and gives a basic introduction to the style of temple construction.
Information board in the temple premises installed by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) written in Hindi and English. The board provides information about the Harshat Mata Temple site and gives a basic introduction to the style of temple construction.
Moonstone and steps leading up to the first level are visible from the approach, specifically from the east side coming from the Chand Baori.
Moonstone and steps leading up to the first level are visible from the approach, specifically from the east side coming from the Chand Baori.
Broken fragments and debris from the original temple assembled on the adhisthana on the southeast side.
Broken fragments and debris from the original temple assembled on the adhisthana on the southeast side.
Relief carvings of geometric floriated patterns can be seen all around the adhisthana.
Relief carvings of geometric floriated patterns can be seen all around the adhisthana.
Broken debris from the original temple assembled on the southeast face of the adhisthana.
Broken debris from the original temple assembled on the southeast face of the adhisthana.
Relief carvings of geometric, flora and fauna motifs feature all around the adhisthana. A pranala (water spout) for drainage is seen on the left.
Relief carvings of geometric, flora and fauna motifs feature all around the adhisthana. A pranala (water spout) for drainage is seen on the left.
Relief carving of hybrid creatures like kinnaras, vyalas, and makara feature all around the adhisthana. Seen here is a carving of gaja vyala (elephant with wings).
Relief carving of hybrid creatures like kinnaras, vyalas, and makara feature all around the adhisthana. Seen here is a carving of gaja vyala (elephant with wings).
Damaged fragments of amalaka, now kept along the south boundary wall with other broken fragments recovered from the debris of the original temple.
Damaged fragments of amalaka, now kept along the south boundary wall with other broken fragments recovered from the debris of the original temple.
Broken debris from the original temple assembled on the south face of the adhisthana. Relief carvings of geometric, flora and fauna motifs feature all around the adhisthana.
Broken debris from the original temple assembled on the south face of the adhisthana. Relief carvings of geometric, flora and fauna motifs feature all around the adhisthana.
Relief carvings of geometric, flora and fauna motifs feature all around the adhisthana. Seen here is a relief carving of a peacock.
Relief carvings of geometric, flora and fauna motifs feature all around the adhisthana. Seen here is a relief carving of a peacock.
U-shaped rounded stones are assembled on the parapet, but their position or purpose in the original temple is unknown. The projected space attached to the adhisthana (centre) seems contemporary to the original temple and was likely used as a small shrine of the Panchayatan plan. The pradakshina along the east of the adhisthana has been paved with stone by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).
U-shaped rounded stones are assembled on the parapet, but their position or purpose in the original temple is unknown. The projected space attached to the adhisthana (centre) seems contemporary to the original temple and was likely used as a small shrine of the Panchayatan plan. The pradakshina along the east of the adhisthana has been paved with stone by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).
The steps on the adhisthana have a chandrashila (moonstone) on the third step. The moonstone is a hemispherical stone in the shape of the moon, placed at the entrance of Hindu temples and is designed to resemble a lotus flower.
The steps on the adhisthana have a chandrashila (moonstone) on the third step. The moonstone is a hemispherical stone in the shape of the moon, placed at the entrance of Hindu temples and is designed to resemble a lotus flower.
View from the steps on the first level of the adhisthana. The adhisthana has a chandrashila (moonstone) on the landing (seen in the foreground) of the first set of steps and the beginning (seen in the centre) of the second set of steps. The moonstone is a hemispherical stone in the shape of the moon which is often placed at the entrance of Hindu temples and is designed to resemble a lotus flower.
View from the steps on the first level of the adhisthana. The adhisthana has a chandrashila (moonstone) on the landing (seen in the foreground) of the first set of steps and the beginning (seen in the centre) of the second set of steps. The moonstone is a hemispherical stone in the shape of the moon which is often placed at the entrance of Hindu temples and is designed to resemble a lotus flower.
Broken debris from the original temple assembled on the landing of the first set of steps on the adhisthana. The split gavaksha motif is repeated all through the temple. It is a motif that is often seen in Hindu temples.
Broken debris from the original temple assembled on the landing of the first set of steps on the adhisthana. The split gavaksha motif is repeated all through the temple. It is a motif that is often seen in Hindu temples.
Tablet-like plaques are placed on the adhisthana (facing east). These plaques depict various types of flora and fauna as well as hybrid creatures like kinnara, vyala, and makara. The plaques are tightly arranged, richly detailed, and deeply carved, creating contrasting shadows that make the artwork look three-dimensional in sunlight.
Tablet-like plaques are placed on the adhisthana (facing east). These plaques depict various types of flora and fauna as well as hybrid creatures like kinnara, vyala, and makara. The plaques are tightly arranged, richly detailed, and deeply carved, creating contrasting shadows that make the artwork look three-dimensional in sunlight.
The central artwork of the plaque is in the form of a circular medallion surrounded by a foliage motif. Seen here is a floriated makara with its neck stretched around the medallion and the rear part integrated with flowing creeper motifs. The rest of the plaque is decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The central artwork of the plaque is in the form of a circular medallion surrounded by a foliage motif. Seen here is a floriated makara with its neck stretched around the medallion and the rear part integrated with flowing creeper motifs. The rest of the plaque is decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The plaque (on the left) has a depiction of simha (lion) vyala, integrated with creeper motifs that fill the rest of the medallion. The plaque, on the right, features the ashtadal kamal (lotus with eight petals). The plaques are separated by squat pillars which have a square base, an octagonal shaft, and a square capital. The pillars are decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The plaque (on the left) has a depiction of simha (lion) vyala, integrated with creeper motifs that fill the rest of the medallion. The plaque, on the right, features the ashtadal kamal (lotus with eight petals). The plaques are separated by squat pillars which have a square base, an octagonal shaft, and a square capital. The pillars are decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The plaque here features the ashtadal kamal (lotus with eight petals). The plaques are separated by squat pillars which have a square base, an octagonal shaft, and a square capital. The pillars are decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The plaque here features the ashtadal kamal (lotus with eight petals). The plaques are separated by squat pillars which have a square base, an octagonal shaft, and a square capital. The pillars are decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The central artwork of the plaque is in the form of a circular medallion surrounded by a foliage motif. Seen in this plaque, simha (lion) vyala and gaja (elephant) vyala engaged in a fight. The rest of the plaque is decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The central artwork of the plaque is in the form of a circular medallion surrounded by a foliage motif. Seen in this plaque, simha (lion) vyala and gaja (elephant) vyala engaged in a fight. The rest of the plaque is decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The central artwork of the plaque is in the form of a circular medallion surrounded by a foliage motif. The left plaque features simha (lion) vyala and gaja (elephant) vyala engaged in a fight. The right plaque features a stylised makara. The plaques are separated by squat pillars which have a square base, an octagonal shaft, and a square capital. The pillars are decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The central artwork of the plaque is in the form of a circular medallion surrounded by a foliage motif. The left plaque features simha (lion) vyala and gaja (elephant) vyala engaged in a fight. The right plaque features a stylised makara. The plaques are separated by squat pillars which have a square base, an octagonal shaft, and a square capital. The pillars are decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
U-shaped rounded stones are assembled on the parapet, but their position or purpose in the original temple is unknown. The central artwork of the plaque is in the form of a circular medallion surrounded by a foliage motif. The plaques are separated by squat pillars which have a square base, an octagonal shaft, and a square capital.
U-shaped rounded stones are assembled on the parapet, but their position or purpose in the original temple is unknown. The central artwork of the plaque is in the form of a circular medallion surrounded by a foliage motif. The plaques are separated by squat pillars which have a square base, an octagonal shaft, and a square capital.
The central artwork of the plaque is in the form of a circular medallion surrounded by a foliage motif. In this medallion, a bird (likely a peacock) with its head bent downwards is integrated with a creeper motif. The rest of the plaque is covered with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The central artwork of the plaque is in the form of a circular medallion surrounded by a foliage motif. In this medallion, a bird (likely a peacock) with its head bent downwards is integrated with a creeper motif. The rest of the plaque is covered with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The central artwork of the plaque is in the form of a circular medallion surrounded by a foliage motif. In this medallion, a bird (likely a peacock) with its head bent downwards is integrated with a creeper motif. The plaques are separated by squat pillars which have a square base, an octagonal shaft, and a square capital. The pillars are decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The central artwork of the plaque is in the form of a circular medallion surrounded by a foliage motif. In this medallion, a bird (likely a peacock) with its head bent downwards is integrated with a creeper motif. The plaques are separated by squat pillars which have a square base, an octagonal shaft, and a square capital. The pillars are decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The central artwork of the plaque is in the form of a circular medallion surrounded by a foliage motif. This plaque features a kirtimukha (face of glory) with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs covering the rest of the plaque surface.
The central artwork of the plaque is in the form of a circular medallion surrounded by a foliage motif. This plaque features a kirtimukha (face of glory) with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs covering the rest of the plaque surface.
This plaque features two birds, likely hamsas (swans), with their necks entwined. The plaques are separated by squat pillars which have a square base, an octagonal shaft, and a square capital. The pillars are decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
This plaque features two birds, likely hamsas (swans), with their necks entwined. The plaques are separated by squat pillars which have a square base, an octagonal shaft, and a square capital. The pillars are decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
In this plaque, a human figure (acrobat/dancer) is doing an acrobatic/dance pose that merges with a creeper motif. Ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs are carved on the rest of the plaque surface. The plaques are separated by squat pillars which have a square base, an octagonal shaft, and a square capital. The pillars are decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
In this plaque, a human figure (acrobat/dancer) is doing an acrobatic/dance pose that merges with a creeper motif. Ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs are carved on the rest of the plaque surface. The plaques are separated by squat pillars which have a square base, an octagonal shaft, and a square capital. The pillars are decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
Broken debris from the original temple assembled on the southeast face of the adhisthana. U-shaped rounded stones are assembled on the parapet, but their position or purpose in the original temple is unknown.
Broken debris from the original temple assembled on the southeast face of the adhisthana. U-shaped rounded stones are assembled on the parapet, but their position or purpose in the original temple is unknown.
The medallion in the centre of the plaque has a kirtimukha (face of glory). The rest of the plaque surface is decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The medallion in the centre of the plaque has a kirtimukha (face of glory). The rest of the plaque surface is decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The medallion shows a kinnara (having the upper body of a human male and the lower body of a bird) with its tail forming a creeper motif. Kinnaras and kinnaris (having the upper body of a human female) are divine musicians who are skilled in dance, music, and poetry. The rest of the plaque surface is decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The medallion shows a kinnara (having the upper body of a human male and the lower body of a bird) with its tail forming a creeper motif. Kinnaras and kinnaris (having the upper body of a human female) are divine musicians who are skilled in dance, music, and poetry. The rest of the plaque surface is decorated with ardha padma (half lotus) and kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
Broken debris from the original temple assembled on the northeast face of the adhisthana. Seen in the carvings are the split gavaksha motifs.
Broken debris from the original temple assembled on the northeast face of the adhisthana. Seen in the carvings are the split gavaksha motifs.
Broken fragments and debris from the original temple assembled on the north face of the adhisthana. The fragments assembled here were once part of the original temple, and other subsidiary structures of the Panchayatana plan.
Broken fragments and debris from the original temple assembled on the north face of the adhisthana. The fragments assembled here were once part of the original temple, and other subsidiary structures of the Panchayatana plan.
The carving features a kinnari holding a purna ghata (a symbol of abundance, prosperity, and fertility). The upper body of the kinnari is depicted with a female human figure and the lower body consists of a bird which forms a floral motif at the rear.
The carving features a kinnari holding a purna ghata (a symbol of abundance, prosperity, and fertility). The upper body of the kinnari is depicted with a female human figure and the lower body consists of a bird which forms a floral motif at the rear.
Most fragments assembled here were once part of the shikhara of the original temple, other subsidiary structures, and associated parts like the urushringa (subsidiary tower projecting from the sides of the main shikhara). The original shikhara did not survive and was replaced by a circular dome during the restoration.
Most fragments assembled here were once part of the shikhara of the original temple, other subsidiary structures, and associated parts like the urushringa (subsidiary tower projecting from the sides of the main shikhara). The original shikhara did not survive and was replaced by a circular dome during the restoration.
Most fragments assembled here were once part of the shikhara of the original temple, other subsidiary structures, and associated parts like the urushringa (subsidiary tower projecting from the sides of the main shikhara). The original shikhara was destroyed and replaced by a circular dome at a later period.
Most fragments assembled here were once part of the shikhara of the original temple, other subsidiary structures, and associated parts like the urushringa (subsidiary tower projecting from the sides of the main shikhara). The original shikhara was destroyed and replaced by a circular dome at a later period.
Most fragments assembled here were once part of the shikhara of the original temple, other subsidiary structures, and associated parts like the urushringa (subsidiary tower projecting from the sides of the main shikhara).
Most fragments assembled here were once part of the shikhara of the original temple, other subsidiary structures, and associated parts like the urushringa (subsidiary tower projecting from the sides of the main shikhara).
Most fragments assembled here were once part of the shikhara of the original temple, other subsidiary structures, and associated parts like the urushringa (subsidiary tower projecting from the sides of the main shikhara). The original shikhara did not survive and was replaced by a circular dome during the restoration.
Most fragments assembled here were once part of the shikhara of the original temple, other subsidiary structures, and associated parts like the urushringa (subsidiary tower projecting from the sides of the main shikhara). The original shikhara did not survive and was replaced by a circular dome during the restoration.
Most fragments assembled here were once part of the shikhara of the original temple, other subsidiary structures, and associated parts like the amalaka (notched disc) as seen here.
Most fragments assembled here were once part of the shikhara of the original temple, other subsidiary structures, and associated parts like the amalaka (notched disc) as seen here.
The east-facing steps on the adhisthana have a chandrashila (moonstone) on the third step. The chandrashila (moonstone) is a hemispherical stone in the shape of the moon and is often placed at the entrance of Hindu temples and is designed to resemble a lotus flower.
The east-facing steps on the adhisthana have a chandrashila (moonstone) on the third step. The chandrashila (moonstone) is a hemispherical stone in the shape of the moon and is often placed at the entrance of Hindu temples and is designed to resemble a lotus flower.
Front view of Harshat Mata Temple and Nandi shrine (east). The original stone temple was built in the Mahameru style and was destroyed and replaced by a circular domed structure at a later period when the temple was reconstructed.
Front view of Harshat Mata Temple and Nandi shrine (east). The original stone temple was built in the Mahameru style and was destroyed and replaced by a circular domed structure at a later period when the temple was reconstructed.
Broken fragments and debris from the original temple assembled on the east face of the adhisthana.
Broken fragments and debris from the original temple assembled on the east face of the adhisthana.
The scene depicts the couple admiring each other, in a moment of shringar rasa (romantic love). The central figure of the man is seated in the lalitasana posture. He is caressing his partner’s chin with his left hand while holding a flower in his right hand, offering it to her. The lady is resting her right hand on the left thigh of the man and her head is tilted upwards, as he looks into her face.
The scene depicts the couple admiring each other, in a moment of shringar rasa (romantic love). The central figure of the man is seated in the lalitasana posture. He is caressing his partner’s chin with his left hand while holding a flower in his right hand, offering it to her. The lady is resting her right hand on the left thigh of the man and her head is tilted upwards, as he looks into her face.
Sculptural panel depicting a couple (likely royal, based on their size and posture) seated on a circular throne and surrounded by female attendants. The scene depicts the couple admiring each other, in a moment of shringar rasa (romantic love).
Sculptural panel depicting a couple (likely royal, based on their size and posture) seated on a circular throne and surrounded by female attendants. The scene depicts the couple admiring each other, in a moment of shringar rasa (romantic love).
The stones are tightly arranged, richly detailed, and deeply carved, creating contrasting shadows that make the artwork look three-dimensional in sunlight. The carvings depict various types of flora and fauna as well as hybrid creatures like kinnaras, vyalas, and makara.
The stones are tightly arranged, richly detailed, and deeply carved, creating contrasting shadows that make the artwork look three-dimensional in sunlight. The carvings depict various types of flora and fauna as well as hybrid creatures like kinnaras, vyalas, and makara.
Couples invoking shringara rasa (associated with romance, love, and attractiveness between lovers) are framed in panels with pillars and tiered shikhara with gavaksha (horseshoe) motifs. Unlike in other parts of the temple, the faces are not damaged and they wear heavy jewellery, elaborate headgear, and garments, indicating they belong to royalty or a high social class.
Couples invoking shringara rasa (associated with romance, love, and attractiveness between lovers) are framed in panels with pillars and tiered shikhara with gavaksha (horseshoe) motifs. Unlike in other parts of the temple, the faces are not damaged and they wear heavy jewellery, elaborate headgear, and garments, indicating they belong to royalty or a high social class.
The base has an ardha padma (half lotus) surrounded by geometric patterns. The panel in the middle has an ornate bird, probably a mayura (peacock), bordered by a creeping vine motif. The next two levels are mouldings depicting floral and vine patterns.
The base has an ardha padma (half lotus) surrounded by geometric patterns. The panel in the middle has an ornate bird, probably a mayura (peacock), bordered by a creeping vine motif. The next two levels are mouldings depicting floral and vine patterns.
Bas relief of a peacock picking the food from the ground. A ring is placed on the neck of the bird.
Bas relief of a peacock picking the food from the ground. A ring is placed on the neck of the bird.
Sukanasa (or sukanasi), was part of the shikhara, located above the entrance to the garbhagriha or inner shrine. The sukanasa (or sukanasi) is usually featured above the entrance to the garbhagriha or inner shrine and often contains the figure of the presiding deity to which the temple is dedicated (missing in this sukanasa). The corners of the arch have inverted conch motifs. The top of the arch has an elaborate kalapavriksha (tree of life) motif.
Sukanasa (or sukanasi), was part of the shikhara, located above the entrance to the garbhagriha or inner shrine. The sukanasa (or sukanasi) is usually featured above the entrance to the garbhagriha or inner shrine and often contains the figure of the presiding deity to which the temple is dedicated (missing in this sukanasa). The corners of the arch have inverted conch motifs. The top of the arch has an elaborate kalapavriksha (tree of life) motif.
Couples invoking shringara rasa (associated with romance, love, and attractiveness between lovers) are framed in panels with pillars and tiered shikhara with gavaksha (horseshoe) motifs. The central male figure is seated in the lalitasana pose on a raised seat. The central female figure is seated on his left thigh, looking towards the man with her head turned. The man is admiring the beauty of the woman, placing his left hand on her coiffure and inspecting her face with his left hand (missing).
Couples invoking shringara rasa (associated with romance, love, and attractiveness between lovers) are framed in panels with pillars and tiered shikhara with gavaksha (horseshoe) motifs. The central male figure is seated in the lalitasana pose on a raised seat. The central female figure is seated on his left thigh, looking towards the man with her head turned. The man is admiring the beauty of the woman, placing his left hand on her coiffure and inspecting her face with his left hand (missing).
The central female figure is seated on his thigh, looking towards the man with her head turned. Both rest their right feet on blooming lotus flowers. The man is holding a flower in his right hand while the woman gently rests her right hand on his left foot. Trees in the background suggest they are in a grove. The couple is surrounded by four male and female attendants.
The central female figure is seated on his thigh, looking towards the man with her head turned. Both rest their right feet on blooming lotus flowers. The man is holding a flower in his right hand while the woman gently rests her right hand on his left foot. Trees in the background suggest they are in a grove. The couple is surrounded by four male and female attendants.
The man is admiring the beauty of the woman, placing his left hand on her coiffure and inspecting her face with his left hand (missing). Chauri dharini (fly whisk bearers) stand on either side of the couple, looking towards them. A small female figure features at the right bottom, likely an attendant or servant.
The man is admiring the beauty of the woman, placing his left hand on her coiffure and inspecting her face with his left hand (missing). Chauri dharini (fly whisk bearers) stand on either side of the couple, looking towards them. A small female figure features at the right bottom, likely an attendant or servant.
The architectural pattern used on the jagati or adhisthana of the temple with half floral motifs and step-like figures.
The architectural pattern used on the jagati or adhisthana of the temple with half floral motifs and step-like figures.
The space in front of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) is the maha mandapa which is used as a congregation space and for conducting rituals. Instead of the traditional shikhara over the garbhagriha, the temple was reconstructed with concrete domes over the garbhagriha and the maha mandapa.
The space in front of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) is the maha mandapa which is used as a congregation space and for conducting rituals. Instead of the traditional shikhara over the garbhagriha, the temple was reconstructed with concrete domes over the garbhagriha and the maha mandapa.
A broken section of the block features two pillars divided vertically in three sections. The kalpa lata (creeper) motif features at the base, the purna kalasha (pot of prosperity) in the central part. The top part is damaged and blooming lotuses separate the three parts. In the central part, a flowing kalpavrisksha (tree of life) motif is carved in great detail.
A broken section of the block features two pillars divided vertically in three sections. The kalpa lata (creeper) motif features at the base, the purna kalasha (pot of prosperity) in the central part. The top part is damaged and blooming lotuses separate the three parts. In the central part, a flowing kalpavrisksha (tree of life) motif is carved in great detail.
The space in front of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) is the maha mandapa which is used as a congregation space and for conducting rituals. A pradakshina (circumambulation path) goes around the garbhagriha and the mahamadapa. Instead of the traditional shikhara, the temple was reconstructed with a dome by the Archaeology Department of the erstwhile Jaipur State in the 1940s.
The space in front of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) is the maha mandapa which is used as a congregation space and for conducting rituals. A pradakshina (circumambulation path) goes around the garbhagriha and the mahamadapa. Instead of the traditional shikhara, the temple was reconstructed with a dome by the Archaeology Department of the erstwhile Jaipur State in the 1940s.
This panel depicts a warrior invoking raudram rasa (fury/rage) by aggressively wielding a drawn sword. The central figure of a warrior-king is aggressively stepping forward wielding a naked sword in his right hand. A dagger is tucked into his kamarbandha (waist belt). The central female figure (seen on the left) may be a queen, who is trying to stop the man by pulling him behind.
This panel depicts a warrior invoking raudram rasa (fury/rage) by aggressively wielding a drawn sword. The central figure of a warrior-king is aggressively stepping forward wielding a naked sword in his right hand. A dagger is tucked into his kamarbandha (waist belt). The central female figure (seen on the left) may be a queen, who is trying to stop the man by pulling him behind.
Different coloured stones are assembled here, some in pink sandstone and the rest in grey sandstone. The pink sandstone has floral designs with Stupa (dome-shaped memorials, made on the holy relics of the Buddha) motifs. The grey sandstone has the padma (lotus), the purna ghata (overflowing pot of prosperity) and the kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
Different coloured stones are assembled here, some in pink sandstone and the rest in grey sandstone. The pink sandstone has floral designs with Stupa (dome-shaped memorials, made on the holy relics of the Buddha) motifs. The grey sandstone has the padma (lotus), the purna ghata (overflowing pot of prosperity) and the kalpa lata (creeper) motifs.
The jagati has two projected niches on the south and north sides and a single projected niche on the west side. The dome pedestal and the domes on top of the mandapa (pillared hall) and the garbhagriha (sanctum) are made of concrete instead of stone, which is used in the rest of the temple structure. The open space surrounding the jagati is the pradakshina path (circumambulation path) on the adhisthana.
The jagati has two projected niches on the south and north sides and a single projected niche on the west side. The dome pedestal and the domes on top of the mandapa (pillared hall) and the garbhagriha (sanctum) are made of concrete instead of stone, which is used in the rest of the temple structure. The open space surrounding the jagati is the pradakshina path (circumambulation path) on the adhisthana.
The central male figure is holding a flower in his right hand and his left hand is placed on his left leg. The central female figure is carrying a round fruit (or sweet) in her left hand and holding the man’s left hand with her right hand, showing affection. Two attendants are flanking the couple on either side. Flowering trees are drooping in the backdrop.
The central male figure is holding a flower in his right hand and his left hand is placed on his left leg. The central female figure is carrying a round fruit (or sweet) in her left hand and holding the man’s left hand with her right hand, showing affection. Two attendants are flanking the couple on either side. Flowering trees are drooping in the backdrop.
The upper block has the kalpavrisksha (tree of life) motif running along a central band. The panels on either side are damaged but visible features include the kalpa lata (creeper) motif (bottom left), the purna ghata (overflowing pot of prosperity) motif (mid-sections), and the kirtimukha motif (bottom right). The block in the middle has the ardha padma (half lotus) motif.
The upper block has the kalpavrisksha (tree of life) motif running along a central band. The panels on either side are damaged but visible features include the kalpa lata (creeper) motif (bottom left), the purna ghata (overflowing pot of prosperity) motif (mid-sections), and the kirtimukha motif (bottom right). The block in the middle has the ardha padma (half lotus) motif.
The central male figure and female figures are enjoying a musical concert in a grove. They are seated on circular raised seats, and the male is seated in the lalitasana pose. The female figure is leaning towards the male and playing a stringed musical instrument (likely a veena). They are surrounded by four smaller figures. A male soldier is holding a sword and shield (on the left). One musician is playing the flute (bottom), sitting between the seats.
The central male figure and female figures are enjoying a musical concert in a grove. They are seated on circular raised seats, and the male is seated in the lalitasana pose. The female figure is leaning towards the male and playing a stringed musical instrument (likely a veena). They are surrounded by four smaller figures. A male soldier is holding a sword and shield (on the left). One musician is playing the flute (bottom), sitting between the seats.
A male figure surrounded by dancers and musicians is framed in panels with pillars and tiered shikhara with gavaksha (horseshoe) motifs. Two female dancers are balancing themselves on big drums on either side of the male figure. Small figures of musicians are holding the base of the drums. The one on the left is playing the flute. Four small figures appear at the top, playing cymbals, two on either side of the male figure.
A male figure surrounded by dancers and musicians is framed in panels with pillars and tiered shikhara with gavaksha (horseshoe) motifs. Two female dancers are balancing themselves on big drums on either side of the male figure. Small figures of musicians are holding the base of the drums. The one on the left is playing the flute. Four small figures appear at the top, playing cymbals, two on either side of the male figure.
The man is facing the woman and caressing her chin with his left hand and holding a flower in his right hand. The female has her right hand placed over the man’s right shoulder, while her left-hand rests upon the head of a female attendant seated on the ground. The man is resting his right foot on a lotus next to a musician playing the flute (bottom left). Three more attendants appear on the left, with the largest one holding a fan.
The man is facing the woman and caressing her chin with his left hand and holding a flower in his right hand. The female has her right hand placed over the man’s right shoulder, while her left-hand rests upon the head of a female attendant seated on the ground. The man is resting his right foot on a lotus next to a musician playing the flute (bottom left). Three more attendants appear on the left, with the largest one holding a fan.
The central male figure is seated in the rajalilasana pose (both legs raised on the seat, palm of the feet together) on a raised seat. The central female figure is seated on the left of the man, on a separate seat, in the malasana (squat) pose. Male and female attendants flank the central figure from the left and right respectively. All the figures are watching a performance (not in the frame) and looking in unison towards the left.
The central male figure is seated in the rajalilasana pose (both legs raised on the seat, palm of the feet together) on a raised seat. The central female figure is seated on the left of the man, on a separate seat, in the malasana (squat) pose. Male and female attendants flank the central figure from the left and right respectively. All the figures are watching a performance (not in the frame) and looking in unison towards the left.
The central male figure and female figures are enjoying a musical concert in a grove. They are seated on raised circular seats, and the male is seated in the lalitasana pose. The female figure is leaning towards the male and playing a stringed musical instrument (likely a veena). They are surrounded by four smaller figures.
The central male figure and female figures are enjoying a musical concert in a grove. They are seated on raised circular seats, and the male is seated in the lalitasana pose. The female figure is leaning towards the male and playing a stringed musical instrument (likely a veena). They are surrounded by four smaller figures.
The central male figure and female figures are enjoying a musical concert in a grove. The female figure is leaning towards the male and playing a stringed musical instrument (likely a veena). They are surrounded by four smaller figures. A male soldier is holding a sword and shield (on the left). One musician is playing the flute (bottom), sitting between the seats.
The central male figure and female figures are enjoying a musical concert in a grove. The female figure is leaning towards the male and playing a stringed musical instrument (likely a veena). They are surrounded by four smaller figures. A male soldier is holding a sword and shield (on the left). One musician is playing the flute (bottom), sitting between the seats.
A central male figure is seated in the lalitasana pose on a raised seat, looking towards the central female figure seated on his left thigh, who is playing a stringed musical instrument. The female figure is also in the lalitasana pose and her right foot is resting on a footrest. The central male figure is forcefully pulling a female attendant (holding a hand fan) towards him with his right hand. Behind the fan-holding female is a figure (face missing) wielding a sword.
A central male figure is seated in the lalitasana pose on a raised seat, looking towards the central female figure seated on his left thigh, who is playing a stringed musical instrument. The female figure is also in the lalitasana pose and her right foot is resting on a footrest. The central male figure is forcefully pulling a female attendant (holding a hand fan) towards him with his right hand. Behind the fan-holding female is a figure (face missing) wielding a sword.
The central male figure is seated on a raised circular seat in the lalitasana pose, firing an arrow from a bow. Standing on his left are two female figures (faces defaced), looking towards him. The female on his immediate left is holding a flower in her right hand. The female to his far left is holding a floral scroll. The female figure on his right is damaged. A bunch of mangoes hang above them.
The central male figure is seated on a raised circular seat in the lalitasana pose, firing an arrow from a bow. Standing on his left are two female figures (faces defaced), looking towards him. The female on his immediate left is holding a flower in her right hand. The female to his far left is holding a floral scroll. The female figure on his right is damaged. A bunch of mangoes hang above them.
A small shrine, possibly a newer construction, is placed off-centred to the right facing the garbhagriha. Further steps lead to the third level, on a projected platform. The upper part made of concrete is a later addition. The structure has arched openings on the west, east, and north sides with a rectangular entrance inside an arched niche (seen here) on the south side.
A small shrine, possibly a newer construction, is placed off-centred to the right facing the garbhagriha. Further steps lead to the third level, on a projected platform. The upper part made of concrete is a later addition. The structure has arched openings on the west, east, and north sides with a rectangular entrance inside an arched niche (seen here) on the south side.
A small shrine, possibly a newer construction, is placed off-centred to the right facing the garbhagriha. The subsidiary shrine has arched openings on the west, (seen here) east and north sides with a rectangular entrance inside an arched niche on the south side. A Shiva lingam made in black stone is installed inside with a Nandi figure next to it. An earthen pot is installed on a tripod which drips water over the Shiva lingam.
A small shrine, possibly a newer construction, is placed off-centred to the right facing the garbhagriha. The subsidiary shrine has arched openings on the west, (seen here) east and north sides with a rectangular entrance inside an arched niche on the south side. A Shiva lingam made in black stone is installed inside with a Nandi figure next to it. An earthen pot is installed on a tripod which drips water over the Shiva lingam.
The stone is broken and has three vertical sections. The section on the left has a purna kalasha (overflowing pot of prosperity) motif on the upper half and a makara (hybrid sea creature) inside a circular medallion at the bottom half. The mid-section has an intricate carving of kalpa vrisksha (tree of life) motif with figures of birds and kinnaras (hybrid human-bird creatures) camouflaged within the foliage. The section on the right has a purna kalasha motif on the top half and an eight-petal lotus blooming inside a circular medallion at the bottom half.
The stone is broken and has three vertical sections. The section on the left has a purna kalasha (overflowing pot of prosperity) motif on the upper half and a makara (hybrid sea creature) inside a circular medallion at the bottom half. The mid-section has an intricate carving of kalpa vrisksha (tree of life) motif with figures of birds and kinnaras (hybrid human-bird creatures) camouflaged within the foliage. The section on the right has a purna kalasha motif on the top half and an eight-petal lotus blooming inside a circular medallion at the bottom half.
mall shrine, possibly a newer construction, is placed off-centred to the right facing the garbhagriha. Further steps lead to the third level, on a projected platform. Pieces from the temple have been repurposed in this shrine. The structure has arched openings on the west, east, and north sides with a rectangular entrance inside an arched niche (seen here) on the south side.
mall shrine, possibly a newer construction, is placed off-centred to the right facing the garbhagriha. Further steps lead to the third level, on a projected platform. Pieces from the temple have been repurposed in this shrine. The structure has arched openings on the west, east, and north sides with a rectangular entrance inside an arched niche (seen here) on the south side.
A small shrine, possibly a newer construction, is placed off-centred to the right facing the garbhagriha. Further steps lead to the third level, on a projected platform. A Shiva lingam made in black stone is installed inside with a Nandi figure next to it. An earthen pot is installed on a tripod which drips water over the Shiva lingam.
A small shrine, possibly a newer construction, is placed off-centred to the right facing the garbhagriha. Further steps lead to the third level, on a projected platform. A Shiva lingam made in black stone is installed inside with a Nandi figure next to it. An earthen pot is installed on a tripod which drips water over the Shiva lingam.