Unveiling the Sacred: Exploring the Harshatmata Temple of Abhaneri

Located off the Delhi-Jaipur highway in Rajasthan, Abaneri or Abhaneri is a popular tourist spot boasting one of the deepest stepwells in India, the Chand Baori. The site is also home to the 9th century Harshatmata Temple. During his survey of Rajasthan in the 19th century, James Tod came across the ruins of an ancient structure of importance in a small village of Abhanair, three miles from Lalsot. The place was already known through the bards who sang tales of the romance of Raja Chand and Permala. The Harshatmata Temple then came to the notice of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), and the site later made its way into the selection of important monuments of the Jaipur Circle, ASI, in 1925 CE. Restoration of the temple began in the 1940s under the guidance of Satya Prakash.

Abhaneri is renowned for its exquisite sculptures, said to draw inspiration from the Gupta era of art. Some selected sculptures received scholarly attention from R.C. Agrawala, Pupul Jayakar, and Neelima Vashishtha[1]. Significant contributions to the art and architecture of the site have been made by Rajendra Yadav[2] and Cynthia Packert Atherton[3], forming an important part of the site’s historiography. The temple retains only a few sculptures in situ; most of the recovered sculptures are kept in an enclosure at the Chand Baori. Many are also displayed in various museums and private collections such as the National Museum in Delhi, Hawa Mahal in Jaipur, Albert-Hall Museum in Jaipur, and the private collection of the Maharaja of Jaipur. Due to a lack of foundational inscriptions at the site, tracing the patrons of the temple and the stepwell is difficult. However, the iconographies at the site reveal multiple clues to possible patronage and the sectarian beliefs of these patrons.

The Harshatmata Temple

Built in the Maha-Maru style of the 9th century CE, the site presents exquisite specimens of post-Gupta developments in art and architecture. The temple is tri-anga (with three planes of offsets) and pancha-ratha (with five offsets from kona to kona on a given side) in plan. While not much survives intact on the site, the temple’s stylistics, as well as inscriptions from the Shakambhari dynasty, reveal clues to the sectarian worship prevailing at the site. The Harsha stone inscription of Vigraharaja and the Bijholi inscription of Somesvara mention the Shakambhari Chahamanas as descended from Vasudeva, with Shakambhari Devi as their patron Goddess.[4] According to the inscriptions, Shakambhari Devi is also considered as a consort of Vishnu, and the dynasty further claimed descent from the ‘right eye of Vishnu’. The depictions of Pradyumna, Aniruddha, and Sankarshana Balarama on the vedibandha (mouldings at the base of the temple wall) indicate Pancharatra worship of Vaikuntha Vishnu. The Pancharatra cult is one of the oldest surviving sects of Vaishnavism in India today, and its influence covered northern, western, and central India during the early medieval period.

Pancharatra is a tantric form of the worship of Vishnu. The sect propounds the presence of an all-inclusive God who is imminent and antaryami (all knowing). The main tenets of Pancharatra place Vasudeva as the central deity, who manifests when combined with his Shakti for the divine creation of the universe.[5] The cosmogonic mythology of the followers of this sect heavily relies on the emanatory concept, where the sum total of the gunas (attributes) coalesces into the Bhagvata, and the separation of these gunas forms the vyuhas (emanations), through which cosmic activity can be explained. Thus, the philosophy centres on emanations, primarily represented by members of the Vrishni family.[6] Samkarshana is placed facing north, and Pradyumna and Aniruddha facing west and south respectively on the base mouldings of the bhadra (central projection typically to one of the cardinal directions) walls. (Image 1, 2, 3) Since the directional arrangement violates the natural progression of the emanations of Vishnu from Vasudeva to Samkarshana to Pradyumna and Aniruddha, Cynthia Packert Atherton argues that the temple’s arrangement depicts the journey of the practitioner from the unmanifest to the manifest in reverse order. However, the placement of the vyuhas neither conforms to clockwise or anti-clockwise movement, disturbing the potency of the tantric worship. The reason for this placement, intentional or otherwise cannot be discerned. It is possible that the artists were not well-versed in the sect that only became popular by the 11th century CE. Nevertheless, the presence of Pancharatra at the temple also cannot be overlooked in favour of the multiple sculptures of Shakti.

Image 1: The adhisthana has depictions of various Hindu gods and goddesses framed within elaborately carved panels. This panel has a central male figure holding a hala (plough) and large hooded nagas (serpents). The panel has a central male figure seated in the lalitasana posture on a circular throne. The figure has four arms and is holding a hala (plough) in his upper left hand.
Image 1: The adhisthana has depictions of various Hindu gods and goddesses framed within elaborately carved panels. This panel has a central male figure holding a hala (plough) and large hooded nagas (serpents). The panel has a central male figure seated in the lalitasana posture on a circular throne. The figure has four arms and is holding a hala (plough) in his upper left hand.
Image 2: This panel depicts Pradyumna. While Meister identifies the sculpture as Varuna, the God of oceans and the dikpala of the west direction, Packert-Atherton identifies him as Pradyumna, one of the Vrishni cult deities of the Pancharatra sect. Pradyumna is seated in the lalitasana posture on his mount, the mythical sea creature called makara. He holds a bow in his left hand and is surrounded by four female attendants.
Image 2: This panel depicts Pradyumna. While Meister identifies the sculpture as Varuna, the God of oceans and the dikpala of the west direction, Packert-Atherton identifies him as Pradyumna, one of the Vrishni cult deities of the Pancharatra sect. Pradyumna is seated in the lalitasana posture on his mount, the mythical sea creature called makara. He holds a bow in his left hand and is surrounded by four female attendants.
 Image 3: Lord Vishnu (Aniruddha) is depicted as chaturbahu (with four hands). In his rear right hand, he is carrying the gada (mace), named Kaumodaki, and in his rear left hand, the chakra (discus) named Sudarshana, while the front two hands are broken. A pair of vidhyadharas (knowledge bearers) are seen flying on the top corners, showering floral garlands.
Image 3: Lord Vishnu (Aniruddha) is depicted as chaturbahu (with four hands). In his rear right hand, he is carrying the gada (mace), named Kaumodaki, and in his rear left hand, the chakra (discus) named Sudarshana, while the front two hands are broken. A pair of vidhyadharas (knowledge bearers) are seen flying on the top corners, showering floral garlands.

While much is retained at the temple, a few sculptures are still present at the mancha (dias) level and at the gudhamandapa (closed hall). Elegant representations of courtly leisure with female companionship in various poses convey the many stages of romance and courtship. The representation of couples at Abhaneri is restrained and not explicit, contrasting with later norms from the 10th century CE onwards. A possible representation of Kamadeva is also present at this level (Image 4). The sculptures in the gudhamandapa depict scenes of daily worship as well as the various avataras (manifestations) of Vishnu. Representation of Krishna-Lila also ties well with the Pancharatra scheme as well as the large sandstone image of Krishna-Govardhana found amongst the loose sculptures at the enclosure of the Chand Baori. Krishna is shown riding Kaliya in the Kaliyamardana episode, along with an encounter with the Kesi demon from the keshinisudana tale. Other avataras include Narasimha, Trivikrama Vishnu, Varaha, and Aniruddha. Sculptures of Surya, Shiva and Shiva as Natesha along with a scene of linga worship are also depicted in the gudhamandapa. The lalatabimba (lintel) from the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) does not survive, and its space is plastered with mortar. However, lintels were recovered from the site and are displayed in the Hawa Mahal Collection, Albert Hall Museum, and the National Museum. Reading these lintels along with those kept at the Chand Baori enclosure indicate the presence of multiple sects. The panel from Hawa Mahal depicts a gay scene of musicians and dancers at the centre with Kubera being served wine by a female attendant. The left section also displays Durga in a padmasana posture (Image 5). The Saptamatrika panel from the Albert Hall Museum also shows exquisitely detailed matrikas (mother goddesses) with their specific vahanas (mount) with Vinadhara Shiva in the centre (Image 6). Another lintel from the National Museum shows a trishaka panel with Shiva and Parvati in alingana (embrace) interspersed with kirtimukhas (face of glory) (Image 7). R.C. Agrawala mentions a lintel featuring Vishnu at the centre, placed above a principal niche outside of the main shrine.[7] However, this lintel is currently missing. Other panels include an elaborate depiction of the devasura-sangrama, inspired by the Devi Mahatmya, as well as a depiction of the Tridevas.

Image 4: Couples invoking shringara rasa (associated with romance, love, and attractiveness between lovers) are framed in panels with pillars and tiered shikhara with gavaksha (horseshoe) motifs. The central figures are wearing heavy jewellery, elaborate headgear, and garments, indicating they are a royal couple.
Image 4: Couples invoking shringara rasa (associated with romance, love, and attractiveness between lovers) are framed in panels with pillars and tiered shikhara with gavaksha (horseshoe) motifs. The central figures are wearing heavy jewellery, elaborate headgear, and garments, indicating they are a royal couple.
Image 5: Musicians, dancers, and harp players are present on the central section of the lintel. The right section has a depiction of Kubera with a female attendant serving wine; the left section has a seated Durga in a padmasana position on a lotus with eight hands holding a bow, kamandala (pitcher), sword, shield, and rosary
Image 5: Musicians, dancers, and harp players are present on the central section of the lintel. The right section has a depiction of Kubera with a female attendant serving wine; the left section has a seated Durga in a padmasana position on a lotus with eight hands holding a bow, kamandala (pitcher), sword, shield, and rosary
Image 6: The panel is divided into two sections, displaying the matrikas, each identifiable by their vahanas (mounts) in the following order: Maheshvari, Vaishnavi, Vinadhara Shiva, Varahi, and Kaumari. The section on the left features Aindri (or Indrani) and Chamunda.
Image 6: The panel is divided into two sections, displaying the matrikas, each identifiable by their vahanas (mounts) in the following order: Maheshvari, Vaishnavi, Vinadhara Shiva, Varahi, and Kaumari. The section on the left features Aindri (or Indrani) and Chamunda.
Image 7: It is a trishakha (three vertical bands or branches) lintel having a nagashakha (serpent branch), inner patravalli (foliage pattern), and a mithunashakha (amorous couple branch) at the top, with the central figure of Shiva-Parvati in alingana (embrace), interspersed by kirtimukhas (face of glory).
Image 7: It is a trishakha (three vertical bands or branches) lintel having a nagashakha (serpent branch), inner patravalli (foliage pattern), and a mithunashakha (amorous couple branch) at the top, with the central figure of Shiva-Parvati in alingana (embrace), interspersed by kirtimukhas (face of glory).

The site has yielded numerous loose sculptures, including beautiful examples of Krishna Govardharna, Yoga Narayana, Balarama, Surya, and Kubera along with Shiva Andhakasura-vadha murti, Isana, and multiple images of Karttikeya and Ganesha. Despite the Pancharatra influence evident in the temple’s iconographic scheme, multiple sculptures of Durga Mahishasuramardini and Chamunda are found at the site, in addition to Kshemankari and Parvati. Miniature shrines at the stepwell also display Mahishasuramardini and Ganesha in the niches dated to the 9th century CE. The iconography of Kshemankari and Chamunda at the site is clearly a later development and harkens similarity to those found at the 10th century Ambika Temple in Jagat. Kshemankari is a Goddess who provides protection to travellers and is significant in tantric worship as she emanates the syllable ‘kshe’ as a mantric tool. She is depicted holding a book which represents supreme knowledge in a codified format. Her depiction is benevolent, as opposed to Chamunda who embodies the ferocious aspect of Shakti (Image 8). The representation of Chamunda with her charchika (little finger) raised to her lips is symbolic of the events that led to the death of Raktabija (Image 9). This symbolic nature is a later development which is also seen at Jagat in the 10th century CE. The combination of Chamunda, Kshemankari, and Durga Mahishasuramardini can also be located at the Sacchiya Mata Temple at Osian.[8] Two fragments of a life-sized sculpture of Mahishasuramardini are also present amongst the loose sculptures. While the restoration record by Satya Prakash mentions the worship of a damaged Durga Mahishasuramardini idol, marred by ritual praxis, in the sanctum, these fragments at the Chand Baori could also have been meant for sanctum worship even though the sculptural fragments show no evidence of ritual veneration.[9] Although evidence is fragmented, it is plausible to suggest a shift in the patterns of worship around the 10th century CE. The loose shurasenas (antefix above the roof) with depictions and Shiva and Durga support this theory. The site also presents evidence of Jaina presence, including a life-sized sculpture of Parashvanath sitting on a bed of snake coils, echoing the Gupta-period Sheshashayi Vishnu at Deogarh, albeit fragmented.[10] A smaller architectural fragment of Jina in the Kayotsarga mudra is also present at the site. A Mahavira sculpture, now housed in an independent shrine between the Harshatmata Temple and the Chand Baori and presently venerated as Hanuman, indicates a modern appropriation of Jain imagery. The exact timing of this conversion is unclear.

Image 8: An eight-armed deity is depicted standing in samabhanga (upright posture) on a lotus beneath which are two addorsed lions. The deity holds a shield in the upper left hand; the remaining hands are broken. A halo is present behind her head.
Image 8: An eight-armed deity is depicted standing in samabhanga (upright posture) on a lotus beneath which are two addorsed lions. The deity holds a shield in the upper left hand; the remaining hands are broken. A halo is present behind her head.
Image 9: An eight-armed Goddess stands on a lotus and naravahana (human corpse). Her form appears emaciated with sagging breasts and a sunken stomach. She has her mouth open and is pointing her little finger towards it with her left hand. She holds a trident in her right hand and a khappar (skull bowl) and naramunda (severed head) spear in the left hand. The remaining hands are broken.
Image 9: An eight-armed Goddess stands on a lotus and naravahana (human corpse). Her form appears emaciated with sagging breasts and a sunken stomach. She has her mouth open and is pointing her little finger towards it with her left hand. She holds a trident in her right hand and a khappar (skull bowl) and naramunda (severed head) spear in the left hand. The remaining hands are broken.

Patrons of the Harshatmata Temple and Chand Baori

The information bulletin by ASI attributes the patronage of the temple and the stepwell to Raja Chand of the Nikumbha Dynasty. James Tod’s records also reference Raja Chand and Permala. The content of the narrative details the love affair between Raja Chand of Abhanair and Permala, who was betrothed to Raja Sursen of Indrapuri, a place Tod assumes might be Delhi. This affair sparked a bitter rivalry between the two kings.[11] Local lore also connects both the village and the temple with the illustrious Raja Bhoj and Raja Chand and the villagers sing ‘shahara ghadhi pargana, Alwar gadha ke pas; basti Raja Chand ki, Abhaneri nivas’. This testament to the enduring nature of memory highlights its importance in the realm of popular history. Despite possible distortions, the legacy of Raja Chand has deeply ingrained itself into the very essence of the village, persisting to the present day.

However, upon closer examination the identity of Raja Chand, beyond the bardic narratives remains elusive. Dasratha Sharma, in his analysis of the various dynasties mentioned in the Kanhadadeprabandha, indicates that while the Nikumbhas are present in the list of 36 dynasties, no specific kings have been named. Moreover, during this period, the region was under the rule of the Shakambhari Chahamanas who were the feudatories of the Gurjara-Pratiharas.[12] The in-situ sculptures of Samkarshana Balarama, Aniruddha, and Pradyumna at the vedibandha level further emphasize the site’s affiliation with Pancharatra worship of Vaikuntha Vishnu; a form of worship that is seen at Khajuraho’s famous Lakshmana Temple under Yashovarman of the Chandela dynasty. Temples dedicated to Vaikuntha Vishnu, often sponsored by dynasties previously under Gurjara-Pratihara dominance, serve as focal points for studying the sectarian influence networks within regions linked by vassal-overlord ties. Chandraraja II, a Shakambari ruler, contemporary with the temple and stepwell’s construction, emerges as a potential patron. Inscriptions such as the Bijholi Rock Inscription of Chahamana Somesvara, and Yashovarman’s foundational inscription of the Laksmana Temple, help in narrowing the identity of possible patrons of the site. Furthermore, the stepwell underwent restoration and expansion in the 18th century CE under the leadership of Sawai Jai Singh of Amer.[13]Two figures are proposed as likely identities of ‘Raja Chand’. Jai Singh had married princess Chandra Kunwar of Udaipur on the condition that she would be the chief queen of Amer, her rank would be higher than others he would marry, as well as ensuring that any sons born of this union would be first in line to succeed. Princess Chandra Kunwar was thus vested with enormous powers, and as stepwells have been traditionally associated with women in power, Chandra Kunwar may be considered as a possible patron. Rama Chandra Pant, the Diwan of Amer, can also be considered as the legendary ‘Raja Chand’, if one is to draw a comparison with the bard song recorded by Tod. Diwans maintained general supervision over the daily affairs of the State, along with the activities of various departments. This hypothesis places the period of Sawai Jai Singh as the most probable time for the renovation of the stepwell. A curious incidence is the similarity of the name; both in the case of Shakambhari Chahamanas as well as in the 18th century.

The Local Connection

The locals have a keen sense of the history of their area, often sharing legends and perceptions related to the temple and the stepwell complex. Among these tales, the destruction of the complex is frequently attributed to historical figures such as Muhammad Ghori or Emperor Aurangzeb. A widespread belief among the community is that a hidden treasure of gold lies within the depths of the stepwell. Additionally, the site is made popular by tales of secret tunnels that ran deep underground purportedly used by queens to escape, which serve as explanations for the stepwell's current inaccessible state. The temple, too, is surrounded by its own set of myths and legends.

The region is characterized by a strong sense of social identity, particularly evident in the practices surrounding the temple worship. The responsibility of daily worship at the temple has been held by brahmanas from the Barthara, or the Barthaeda gotra. This tradition continues today, with the family currently in seva (service) Harshatmata, or Harasiddhi Devi— as indicated by the sign at the temple entrance—belonging to the same gotra. The village monograph notes that the land was originally granted to this brahmana family in muafi (a tax-free grant), though it has since been re-acquired by the State Government in lieu of cash compensation. Despite these changes, the right to claim offerings remains with the priest, reflecting a lineage of service that spans generations. This family's ancestral ties to the temple, their ongoing role in its management and worship, and the expectation that their descendants will continue in this role underscore a deep sense of continuity and connection. This sense of permanence in posterity and continuity is an important aspect of both the temple’s history and its worshippers’ identities, weaving together the community's present with its past in a shared narrative of enduring devotion.

The daily lives of the people at Abhaneri revolve closely around the temple, which serves as the central hub for various rituals marking an individual's significant life events. One such local practice is the ‘Jaddula’ ceremony, a version of the 'mundana' or head-shaving rite, where clumps of hair from the child’s head are preserved and deposited in the temple of the family deity. These clumps are stuffed into the gavaksha (decorative motif in shape of a cow eye or sun ray aureole) niches on the walls of the Harshatmata Temple, believed to confer the protection of the Goddess when such souvenirs of the child reside in close proximity to her. Ceremonial expenses for such rituals account for nearly fifteen per cent of the total village expenditure.

Additionally, the temple is a jatra (pilgrimage) site. In Rajasthan, jatra typically refers to a pilgrimage to local shrines, as opposed to the more formal yatra, which involves travel to major tirthas such as Badrinath Dham in Uttarakhand, or Jagganatha Puri among others. These jatras facilitates negotiations between devotees and their chosen deity. Devotees seek boons with the expectation of reciprocating with specific acts if their requests are fulfilled by the deity.[14] For example, securing employment is a common boon sought in exchange for offerings made to the deity or the temple. Harshatmata is renowned for granting the desires, attracting local visitors seeking various blessings. Punishments are also meted out in case of truancy in fulfilment of the vow. The Goddess is also approached for issues such as barrenness, believed to result from the anger of the pitra (ancestors), or the kula-devi-devata (ancestral deities). As Harshatmata is considered to be the ishta (chief deity) of the village, she is approached for fertility blessings, with devotees promising reciprocal acts of devotion in return for the boon. In order to attain children, or to prevent instances of infant deaths in the family, devotees offer liquor to either Harshatmata or Bhairodeva. The Bhairo Temple, located near the Harshatmata Temple, is particularly known for fierce retribution in cases of unfulfilled vows. Additionally, the temple is believed to offer protection against the 'evil eye,' a common concern among devotees.

The socio-religious and economic significance of the temple site is further evident through the numerous celebrations held throughout the year. Navratri, for instance, is celebrated with grandeur, accompanied by organization of fairs. During this period, the temple activities blend traditional puja paddhati with local flavour. The recitation of the Durga-charita through the Saptashati path (ceremonial recitation of Saptasati) in Sanskrit is a cherished ritual, and the evenings see a mandali (groups) of local women singing bhajans (devotional songs), often featuring religious renditions of popular movie songs accompanying the dholki, khadatala, and chimta. A fair, albeit with a small attendance of approximately a hundred and fifty people, is also organized. At the conclusion of the nine-day festival, the jvari (khetri or paddy grown for navratri) that was sown at the start of the festival has grown, symbolizing the fertility bestowed upon the family by Goddess. Portions of this crop are preserved as blessings of prosperity, while the remainder is offered at the base of the peepal tree. The Harshat Mata ka Mela, a popular fair lasting three days, is attended in large numbers. Another significant festival that ties the stepwell and the temple together is the Jal-Jhulani gyaras or ekadashi, celebrated popularly in various parts of Rajasthan.

The ‘living’ status of the temple offers insight into how we interact with the past. It extends beyond merely gaining a ‘historical sense’ of the monument to encompass perceptions of it. What endures in the collective memory of the public is how their ancestors worshipped and engaged with the temple. Stories abound of the days when the stepwell was open for exploration, remembered as the space for childhood adventures. Tales of ghosts and djinns, and even the theft of a blue sapphire idol that was worshipped in the sanctum—though unseen by anyone—are ingrained in the popular memory of the temple. Thus, the engagement of the people at Abhaneri, where tourism is vital, differs greatly from the archaeological approach.

The temple priest at Abhaneri passionately advocates for the renovation of the site, believing it could become one of Rajasthan’s most glorious structures.[2] However, the ASI prohibits interventions that compromise historicity. The preservation of the site is important as it serves as a medium through which a connection can be established between the possible patron and the socio-political context of the period during which it was constructed. Yet, preservation should extend beyond the enclosure to include multitude of sculptural fragments that lie exposed in the sun around the temple boundary. This raises the question of what should be preserved. The sculptures that are scattered across museums also fail to provide contextual information, leading to isolated meanings. The temple as a built space thus requires engagement with past and present contexts, both local and traditional, for a holistic understanding of the structure’s significance in the modern world.


Footnotes:

[1] Vashishtha, Sculptural Traditions of Rajasthan.

[2] Yadav, The Sculptural Art of Abaneri.

[3] Packert-Atherton, ‘The Harṣat Mātā Temple at Ābānerī,’ 201-236.

[4] Keilhorn, Harsha Stone Inscription of The Chahamana Vigraharaj, vol. 14, 116–130.; also see- Vyās, Bijholi Rock Inscription of Chahamana Somesvara, vol. 26, 84–112.

[5] Gupta, ed., ‘The Pāñcarātra Attitude to Mantra,’ 225.

[6] Sahay, ‘Connected Worship: Locating Pāñcarātra Networks in Western and Central India,’ 313–328.

[7] Agrawala, ‘Sculptures from Ābānerī Rajasthan,’ 134. While the accession number of the sculpture (AB/10/150) is known, the sculpture or its image could not be traced.

[8] Srija Sahay, ‘The Divine Feminine at Abhaneri’.

[9] Prakash, As Stones Speak: Abhaneri, 5.

[10] Personal Conversation with Prof. Parul Pandya Dhar, Professor of History of Art of South and Southeast Asia, University of Delhi.

[11] Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, vol. 2, 313–314.

[12] Sharma, Early Chauhān Dynasties, 271–272.

[13] Bhatnagar, Life and Times of Sawai Jai Singh, 28. Jai Singh was given the Pargana of Abhaneri.

[14] Gold, Jātrā, Yātrā and Pressing Down Pebbles, vol. 1, 82.

[15] Personal conversation with Mr Sunil Panda, the priest at Harshatmata Temple.

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Bhatnagar, V. S. Life and Times of Sawai Jai Singh, 1688-1743. Delhi: Impex India, 1974.

Gold, Ann Grodzins. Jātrā, Yātrā and Pressing Down Pebbles: Pilgrimage within and beyond Rajasthan. Vol. 1 of The Idea of Rajasthan: Constructions, edited by Karine Schomer, Joanne L. Erdman, Deryck. O. Lodrick, Llyod I. Rudolph. AIIS, 1994.

Gupta, Sanjukta. The Pāñcarātra Attitude to Mantra, Understanding Mantras. Edited by Harvey P Alper. State University of New York Press, 1989.

Keilhorn, F. ‘Harsha Stone Inscription of The Chahamana Vigraharaja.’ In Epigraphia Indica 14, edited by F W Thomas. Bombay: British India Press, 1917–18.

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