Religious Layers at the Hill of Lord Harsha

भिन्नावृत्यं समस्तं भवति हि भुवनं यस्य नृत्ते प्रवृत्ते

श्रीहर्षाभिधानो जयति पशुपतिर्दत्तविश्वानुकंपः ।।

Verse 3, Harsha stone inscription of Vigraharaja

After bowing down to Lord Ganesha, the destroyer of obstacles, the poet of the famed Harshnath stone inscription (V.S. 1030; 957 CE) of the Chauhan King Vigraharaja IV, dedicates the next ten verses to the glory of Lord Shiva. This inscription, also the most important document of the early Chauhan history, was engraved on a large slab of black stone that was found on the porch of a 10th-century dilapidated Shiva temple, the Harshnath Temple (Image 1), located on Harsha Hill in Sikar, Rajasthan. The lord is adored in the inscription as Harsha Shambhu and so is the temple and the hill on which it is located, which was named after him. The subsequent verses record the dynastic history of the patron Chauhan dynasty and their devotion to Lord Harsha, hailed here as their family deity or the kula devata. While the original temple of Harsha was likely built in the early ninth century, it was re-erected in the mid-10th century under the leadership of Shaiva ascetics of the Lakulisa-Pashupata tradition, and several verses are dedicated to celebrate their ascetic virtues, worldly-detachment, tapas (ascetic practice), and devotion to Lord Pashupati, another epithet used for Lord Harsha as the hill. Clearly, the Shaiva-Pashupata tradition enjoyed a clear dominance at the hill. (v 28-46) A careful reading of between the lines of verse 7 suggests there were rather two temples dedicated to God Harsha, one on the hill and another down below.[1]

Image 1: The temple, now in a state of considerable ruin, consists of a mulaprasada of tri-anga specification, joined by a rangamandapa. It lacks the pitha but starts from a single plinth-course. The vedibandha is damaged in some places but originally had kumbha with intricate udgama motifs with a small central box carrying a figure. The jangha, now almost entirely ruined, had dikpalas at the karnas as evidenced by remains in the northeastern corner, The surasundaris were possibly located at the pratirathas and the salilantara-recesses. Inside the sanctum is a shivalinga in active worship, which seems to be contemporaneous with the main shrine.
Image 1: The temple, now in a state of considerable ruin, consists of a mulaprasada of tri-anga specification, joined by a rangamandapa. It lacks the pitha but starts from a single plinth-course. The vedibandha is damaged in some places but originally had kumbha with intricate udgama motifs with a small central box carrying a figure. The jangha, now almost entirely ruined, had dikpalas at the karnas as evidenced by remains in the northeastern corner, The surasundaris were possibly located at the pratirathas and the salilantara-recesses. Inside the sanctum is a shivalinga in active worship, which seems to be contemporaneous with the main shrine.

What the inscription fails, or perhaps intentionally omits, is the presence of several shrines dedicated to different Brahmanical deities, as corroborated by the archaeological remains at the site. The principal shrine is surrounded by several minor shrines that are in total ruin, with only their base courses remaining and lacking any particular order of symmetry and proportions.[2] (Image 2) Hence, the complex was never planned to be a Pachayatan type (main temple with four subsidiary shrines on each of the four corners). Elizabeth Cecil has noted remains of at least twelve such temple foundations. While some of them are contemporaneous to the main shrine, others continued to be built up to the 11th century CE.[3] This photo essay aims to highlight the diverse religious layers behind the overwhelming Shaiva mood of the complex, decoding the archaeological layers and focusing on how the Shaiva domination was visually and symbolically articulated at the site.

Image 2: Around a dozen of subsidiary shrines were built on Harsha Hill in the 10th and 11th centuries. These were dedicated to various Brahmanical deities, as evidenced by architectural fragments. Unlike a Panchayatan temple or a planned temple complex, the irregular placement and size proportions of these sub-shrines suggest a randomness and unplanned construction over an extended period. They exhibit a variety of pitha usually corresponding to the Maha-Maru styles, but some of them also exhibit Maha-Gurjara features.
Image 2: Around a dozen of subsidiary shrines were built on Harsha Hill in the 10th and 11th centuries. These were dedicated to various Brahmanical deities, as evidenced by architectural fragments. Unlike a Panchayatan temple or a planned temple complex, the irregular placement and size proportions of these sub-shrines suggest a randomness and unplanned construction over an extended period. They exhibit a variety of pitha usually corresponding to the Maha-Maru styles, but some of them also exhibit Maha-Gurjara features.

While the Harshnath Temple was the epicentre of the sacrality of the site, it was dotted with shrines dedicated to the Vaishnav, Surya, Shakta and likely also the Ganapatya traditions. Surprisingly, one of the earliest sculptures found at the site is not Shaiva but an independent sculpture of Surya, the Sun God, now placed in a masonry shelter near the Harsha Bhairav Temple on the hill Ambika Dhaka dates this sculpture, to the 8th century CE.[4] (Image 3) The sculpture significantly precedes the Harshnath Temple, which was built in the second half of the 10th century. The Harshnath stone inscription records the devotion of an early founding figure of the Chauhan line, Guvaka I, a local chieftain and feudatory of the powerful imperial Pratihara dynasty, who lived roughly during the first quarter of the ninth century CE. The inscription does not clarify whether Guvaka himself erected a humble shrine to Lord Harsha, later re-erected in the second half of the 10th century, or if such a shrine already existed on the hill and Guvaka simply worshipped him, establishing royal connections with the already existing cultic figure, Harsha. (v 13) While the Shaiva association with the hill could have preceded Guvaka’s time, the much older association with Surya worship on the hill is certain.

Image 3: This is arguably the oldest sculpture at the shrine, dated by Ambika Dhaka to the 8th century CE. The sculpture significantly precedes the Harshanth Temple, built in the second half of the 10th century. The figure carries standard iconographic features of the Sun God like the fully bloomed lotuses in two hands, long tunic, boots and retinue figures in pairs like his companions—Danda and Pingala, his wives and his sons, the Ashvins.
Image 3: This is arguably the oldest sculpture at the shrine, dated by Ambika Dhaka to the 8th century CE. The sculpture significantly precedes the Harshanth Temple, built in the second half of the 10th century. The figure carries standard iconographic features of the Sun God like the fully bloomed lotuses in two hands, long tunic, boots and retinue figures in pairs like his companions—Danda and Pingala, his wives and his sons, the Ashvins.

The temple dedicated to the Sun God continued to be constructed in the subsequent centuries, as evidenced by a majestic sculpture of Surya, now housed in the Akbari Fort and Museum, Ajmer, dating roughly to the late 10th century CE. (Image 4) Arguably one of the finest sculptures found at the site, the radiant glow of the majestic Sun God is appropriately portrayed through a radiant halo in the form of a fully bloomed lotus. Surya is also depicted in another sculpture as a part of a trio alongside Ganesha and Chandra, which may have once been a large panel of the navagraha or nine planets (Image 5). Further solidifying the maturity of the Surya tradition at the hill is an extremely rare image of Chhaya, one of the wives of Surya, now placed in the storeroom of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) at Harsha Hill. Her iconography closely resembles that of her husband, but a distinctive feature of this image at the Harsha Hill, noted by Elizabeth Cecil, is that she holds a trident in one of her left hands. As the signature attribute of Shiva, the inclusion of the trident, otherwise uncommon in Surya images, suggests a visual link between Chhaya and Shiva.[5] The coexistence of Shiva and Surya at Harsha becomes historically significant. While Surya had a long association with the hill, as did Shiva, the shared space significantly tilted in favour of the latter at least from the ninth century onwards, and Shiva gradually became the epicentre of the hill’s sacredness and part of the royal cult.

Image 4: This majestic image of Surya must have once been placed inside the sanctum of a lost Surya shrine. Coupled with multiple other Surya images at the shrine (Surya, Chhaya, etc.), it suggests the maturity of Surya tradition at the hill, which was present at the hill at least from the 8th century—much before the emergence of Harshadeva-Shiva as the royal shrine at the hill. He is holding two fully bloomed lotuses in each hand. He is flanked on either side by his companions, Danda and Pingala, immediately near his legs, and the pair of horse-faced Ashvin brothers, at the back.
Image 4: This majestic image of Surya must have once been placed inside the sanctum of a lost Surya shrine. Coupled with multiple other Surya images at the shrine (Surya, Chhaya, etc.), it suggests the maturity of Surya tradition at the hill, which was present at the hill at least from the 8th century—much before the emergence of Harshadeva-Shiva as the royal shrine at the hill. He is holding two fully bloomed lotuses in each hand. He is flanked on either side by his companions, Danda and Pingala, immediately near his legs, and the pair of horse-faced Ashvin brothers, at the back.
Image 5:  The trio of Ganesha, Surya, and Chandra is one of the several loose sculptures that were affixed on the later structures at the site. The three figures may have once been part of a larger panel depicting the nine heavenly bodies or the navagraha. While the dancing Ganesha is four-armed, the images of Surya and Chandra have only two, broken in both cases. The erect uplift posture or the samabhanga of Surya contrasts with the dynamic posture of Ganesha and the tribhanga pose of Chandra.
Image 5: The trio of Ganesha, Surya, and Chandra is one of the several loose sculptures that were affixed on the later structures at the site. The three figures may have once been part of a larger panel depicting the nine heavenly bodies or the navagraha. While the dancing Ganesha is four-armed, the images of Surya and Chandra have only two, broken in both cases. The erect uplift posture or the samabhanga of Surya contrasts with the dynamic posture of Ganesha and the tribhanga pose of Chandra.

Despite the overall Shaiva inclination of the Harsha temple complex, there were once multiple Vaishnava temples also at the hill, though none of them are recorded in the Harsha temple inscription. Elizabeth Cecil identified three displaced temple lintels deposited within courtyards at the site, in which Vishnu appears as the central deity, suggesting the presence of at least three Vaishnava temples at the hill.[6] This is further corroborated by the findings of several independent Vaishnava images like the image of Shesasayi Vishnu or Vishnu reclining on the serpent Lord Shesa, now placed in the Government Museum, Sikar. (Image 6) One image particularly relevant to understanding the Vaishnava presence at the site is the image of Vaikuntha Vishnu, which reveals the presence of the Pancharatra[8] form of Vaishnavism at Harsha Hill. (Image 7) Pancharatra had spread to various regions of Rajasthan from the 8th century CE onwards, with its most visible manifestations in temples like the Harshatmata Temple of Abhaneri. This image reveals its spread, even if in a limited manner, up to the region of Shekhavati. This great tolerance to the Vaishnava tradition does not diminish the Shaiva domination at the hill, which is commemorated with an important image of Shiva as lingodhbhav-murti, now in the Akbari Fort and Museum, Ajmer. (Image 8) Shiva is represented as the fiery pillar at the centre of the panel, while on either side are the dejected duo of Brahma and Vishnu, who failed to reach the end of the fiery pillar.

Image 6: This particular image of Shesasayi Vishnu or the reclining Vishnu on the serpent Lord Shesa, was likely once the main cultic image inside a now-lost Vaishnava shrine. Nine planets adorn the top of the image, while Vishnu is served by Lakshmi near his feet. Three ayudhapurusa (personification of his weapons) are placed behind him.
Image 6: This particular image of Shesasayi Vishnu or the reclining Vishnu on the serpent Lord Shesa, was likely once the main cultic image inside a now-lost Vaishnava shrine. Nine planets adorn the top of the image, while Vishnu is served by Lakshmi near his feet. Three ayudhapurusa (personification of his weapons) are placed behind him.
Image 7: This important image of Vaikuntha Vishnu reveals the presence of the Pancharatra form of Vaishnavism at Harsha Hill. Pancharatra had spread to various regions of Rajasthan from the 8th century CE onwards, with its most visible manifestations in temples like the Harshatmata Temple of Abhaneri. This image reveals its spread, even if in a limited manner, to the region of Shekhavati.
Image 7: This important image of Vaikuntha Vishnu reveals the presence of the Pancharatra form of Vaishnavism at Harsha Hill. Pancharatra had spread to various regions of Rajasthan from the 8th century CE onwards, with its most visible manifestations in temples like the Harshatmata Temple of Abhaneri. This image reveals its spread, even if in a limited manner, to the region of Shekhavati.
Image 8: This is a depiction of Shiva in the form of lingodhbhav-murti. Stella Kramrisch described this particular image from Harsha: ‘In the universal night the pillar there was nothing; fiery pillar appeared above the waters. Other than it had no beginning no end. Brahma flew into the empyrean and failed to reach its top; Vishnu dived into the depth of the sea and failed to find its bottom. The two great gods thereupon submit and become the acolytes of the fiery pillar.
Image 8: This is a depiction of Shiva in the form of lingodhbhav-murti. Stella Kramrisch described this particular image from Harsha: ‘In the universal night the pillar there was nothing; fiery pillar appeared above the waters. Other than it had no beginning no end. Brahma flew into the empyrean and failed to reach its top; Vishnu dived into the depth of the sea and failed to find its bottom. The two great gods thereupon submit and become the acolytes of the fiery pillar.

Goddess Shakti, the counterpart of Shiva, was significantly depicted at the site in her various manifestations. While Shiva occupied a central place in the sanctum, in the form of a linga placed on yoni, Shakti was represented as Parvati or Vikata on the principal wall inside the sanctum, surrounded by beautiful sculptures of nayikas (female dancers) all around the wall. (Image 9) Likewise, the pillars of the mandapa (pillared hall) are enriched with the images of Parvati and apsaras (celestial damsels) on all four sides. (Image 10) Her independent image in the form of Durga Mahishasuramardini is still in active worship and has been affixed in the enclosure of the nearby Bhairon shrine just outside its sanctum. (Image 11) Several independent yogini figures have been found at the site, hinting towards a lost yogini temple compound. (Images 12, 13 and 14)

Image 9: The pillars in the mandapa of the Harsha Temple are enriched with beautiful images of apsaras and female deities like Parvati (as depicted in this image) in the niches of the pillars. These female figurines correspond to the plethora of female figurines (Parvati and damsels) depicted inside the sanctum on the walls. Beneath these pillar niches are panels depicting musicians, dancers, celestial beings, deities like Ganesha and ascetics.
Image 9: The pillars in the mandapa of the Harsha Temple are enriched with beautiful images of apsaras and female deities like Parvati (as depicted in this image) in the niches of the pillars. These female figurines correspond to the plethora of female figurines (Parvati and damsels) depicted inside the sanctum on the walls. Beneath these pillar niches are panels depicting musicians, dancers, celestial beings, deities like Ganesha and ascetics.
Image 10: Inside the sanctum of the temple, are preserved beautiful sculptures of nayikas on the wall, while at the centre of the principal/back wall, there is a colossal image of Parvati in penance or the panchagni tapa. A four-armed Parvati is performing the penance of the panchagni tapa, also shown visually depicted with fires on either side. She stands erect on an iguana and hence has been labelled as Godhasana Gauri. On either side are two standing and two sitting female attendants.
Image 10: Inside the sanctum of the temple, are preserved beautiful sculptures of nayikas on the wall, while at the centre of the principal/back wall, there is a colossal image of Parvati in penance or the panchagni tapa. A four-armed Parvati is performing the penance of the panchagni tapa, also shown visually depicted with fires on either side. She stands erect on an iguana and hence has been labelled as Godhasana Gauri. On either side are two standing and two sitting female attendants.
Image 11: This image of Durga Mahisasuramardini in active worship is smeared with black paint and clothed, which obscures the details of the image. It is one of the many images, contemporaneous to the Harsha shrine, affixed in the enclosure of the Bhairon shrine.
Image 11: This image of Durga Mahisasuramardini in active worship is smeared with black paint and clothed, which obscures the details of the image. It is one of the many images, contemporaneous to the Harsha shrine, affixed in the enclosure of the Bhairon shrine.
Image 12: This is one of the many images of yoginis found at the site hinting towards a lost yogini temple compound. Contextualizing this image with several other relevant images suggests a maturity of Shakti and tantric traditions at the site. The placid expressions of this two-armed yogini seated in the lalitasana pose suggest her benevolent nature.
Image 12: This is one of the many images of yoginis found at the site hinting towards a lost yogini temple compound. Contextualizing this image with several other relevant images suggests a maturity of Shakti and tantric traditions at the site. The placid expressions of this two-armed yogini seated in the lalitasana pose suggest her benevolent nature.
Image 13: This is one of the many images of yoginis found at the site hinting towards a lost yogini temple compound. Contextualizing this image with several other relevant images suggests a maturity of Shakti and tantric traditions at the site. The two-armed yogini is seated in the lalitasana pose. She holds a mala in her right hand and a cup in her left hand. Her head is lost.
Image 13: This is one of the many images of yoginis found at the site hinting towards a lost yogini temple compound. Contextualizing this image with several other relevant images suggests a maturity of Shakti and tantric traditions at the site. The two-armed yogini is seated in the lalitasana pose. She holds a mala in her right hand and a cup in her left hand. Her head is lost.
Image 14: This is a rare image of Vinayaki, the feminine aspect (consort in some traditions) of Vinayaka or Ganesha. It is one of the several images, once contained in the lost temples of the hill, which were later affixed on the walls of the Bhairon shrine complex. Only a partial image is visible as the lower portion was subsumed by the stairways built next to it.
Image 14: This is a rare image of Vinayaki, the feminine aspect (consort in some traditions) of Vinayaka or Ganesha. It is one of the several images, once contained in the lost temples of the hill, which were later affixed on the walls of the Bhairon shrine complex. Only a partial image is visible as the lower portion was subsumed by the stairways built next to it.

There is also a rare image of Vinayaki, the feminine aspect (consort in some traditions) of Vinayaka or Ganesha. (Image 14) She is likely a tantric Shakti and suggests a syncretic fusion of the Ganapatya and Shakta traditions. She is holding a cup in one of her hands, an attribute found in many of the Shaiva and Shakta images of the site and associated with the tantric tradition. (Images 15) For instance, one interesting image of Shiva shows him holding a cup, or rather a skull, in his lower left hand while the fingers of his right hand dip towards the potion, that it contains, often associated with experiencing the nectar of tantric bliss. Some tantric influences might have reached the site and could explain the presence of an unidentifiable enigmatic six-headed image, seemingly of Shaiva background, with four heads in the fierce form and two in the benevolent form. (Image 16)

Image 15: This elegant Shaiva figure was part of a devakostha or sculptural niche placed on the walls of a now-lost Shaiva shrine and is now housed in the Government Museum, Sikar. The figure has four hands, with the upper two holding a skull-scepter and cobras. In his lower left hand, he holds a cup, or rather a skull, with the fingers of the right hand dipping towards the potion contained within it. On the left is an image of vyala, which was once placed in the salilantara recess of the temple wall.
Image 15: This elegant Shaiva figure was part of a devakostha or sculptural niche placed on the walls of a now-lost Shaiva shrine and is now housed in the Government Museum, Sikar. The figure has four hands, with the upper two holding a skull-scepter and cobras. In his lower left hand, he holds a cup, or rather a skull, with the fingers of the right hand dipping towards the potion contained within it. On the left is an image of vyala, which was once placed in the salilantara recess of the temple wall.
Image 16: This enigmatic deity, seemingly Shaiva, has six heads and twelve hands. Although all hands are broken, one appears to hold an attribute in the form of a trident. The waist portion is buried in the earth. The headgear comprises a jata-mukuta on four of the heads on the sides, which is typically associated with Shiva, and kirita-mukuta on the front and back heads, typically associated with Vishnu. While five of the faces exhibit a fierce form, one appears benevolent.
Image 16: This enigmatic deity, seemingly Shaiva, has six heads and twelve hands. Although all hands are broken, one appears to hold an attribute in the form of a trident. The waist portion is buried in the earth. The headgear comprises a jata-mukuta on four of the heads on the sides, which is typically associated with Shiva, and kirita-mukuta on the front and back heads, typically associated with Vishnu. While five of the faces exhibit a fierce form, one appears benevolent.

Despite being eluded in the epigraphical records, the archaeological remains confirm the presence of multiple Brahmanical traditions at the site. One of which, the Surya cult had one of the earliest sacral presences at the site before it emerged as the predominant Shaiva centre. At least from the mid-10th century onwards, the site was controlled by Shaiva ascetics of the Lakulisa-Pashupata tradition, who are wholeheartedly praised in the epigraph. An ithyphallic image of Shiva (Urdhvareta) or Lakulisa, a preceptor of the doctrine of the Pashupata tradition, is found at the site. (Image 17) Pillars in the mandapa of the Harshnath Temple are adorned with images of Shaiva ascetics worshipping the shivalinga. Multiple shrines of the diverse Brahmanical traditions that once dotted the hill have lost to time. Even the Harshnath Temple is in utter ruins, but Shaiva devotion at the hill has continued. Devotees and pilgrims first visit the late medieval temple at the entrance of the complex, then the ruinous Harshnath Temple, still in worship as Pancha-mukhi Mahadeva (Image 18) and finally the shrine of Harsha Bhairon, (Image 19) the present epicentre of Shaiva devotion and pilgrimage at the site.

Image 17: This is likely an image of Lakulisa, the preceptor of the doctrine of Pashupata tradition. Given that the Harshnath Temple was clearly under the control of and likely erected by the ascetics of the Lakulisa-Pashupata tradition, the depiction of Lakulisa on temple walls comes as no surprise.
Image 17: This is likely an image of Lakulisa, the preceptor of the doctrine of Pashupata tradition. Given that the Harshnath Temple was clearly under the control of and likely erected by the ascetics of the Lakulisa-Pashupata tradition, the depiction of Lakulisa on temple walls comes as no surprise.
Image 18:  The four-faced linga, placed in the sanctum of the Harshnath Temple, is actively worshipped at the site. It has three benevolent faces, while the one facing north bears a fierce expression. They collectively represent the Sadashiva form of Shiva. The idol is contemporaneous to the main shrine but there is some debate over whether it was the original cult image in the shrine or a later replacement.
Image 18: The four-faced linga, placed in the sanctum of the Harshnath Temple, is actively worshipped at the site. It has three benevolent faces, while the one facing north bears a fierce expression. They collectively represent the Sadashiva form of Shiva. The idol is contemporaneous to the main shrine but there is some debate over whether it was the original cult image in the shrine or a later replacement.
Image 19: Close to the Harshnath temple complex is the Bhairon shrine, featuring a semi-iconic rock locally known as the Harsha Bhairon. He is believed to be a manifestation of the folk hero, Harsha, who decided to settle on the hill to worship Shiva and was blessed by the latter to be worshipped at the hill as Bhairon. Several 10th century sculptures are fixed on the walls of this complex.
Image 19: Close to the Harshnath temple complex is the Bhairon shrine, featuring a semi-iconic rock locally known as the Harsha Bhairon. He is believed to be a manifestation of the folk hero, Harsha, who decided to settle on the hill to worship Shiva and was blessed by the latter to be worshipped at the hill as Bhairon. Several 10th century sculptures are fixed on the walls of this complex.

Footnotes:

[1] Bhandarkar, ‘Some unpublished inscriptions reconsidered,’ 57.

[2] Dhaky, Meister, and Deva, eds.,107.

[3] Cecil, ‘The Medieval Temple as Material Archive.’

[4] Dhaka, ‘A fresh light on architectural and sculptural art of Shiva temple at Mount Harsha,’ 379.

[5] Cecil, ‘The Medieval Temple as Material Archive.’

[6] Ibid.

[7] Agrawal, ‘Goddess Vikatā of Harshanath,’ 240.

[8] Pancharatra Vaishnavism is an ancient sect centered on the worship of Lord Vishnu/Narayana as the supreme entity and elucidates different aspects and manifestations of the divine, through the concept of vyuha or emanations and avatar or manifestations. Its rituals and devotional practices are outlined in a large corpus of Pancharatra texts.

Bibliography:

Agrawal, R. C. ‘Goddess Vikatā of Harshanath, Sikar.’ In Jignasa: Journal of History of ideas and culture Part-2. Edited by Vibha Upadhyaya. Jaipur: University of Rajasthan, 2011-2012.

Bhandarkar, D. R. ‘Some unpublished inscriptions reconsidered-Harsha stone inscription of Vigraharaja.’ In Indian Antiquary, No.42 (1913) 57-64.

Cecil, Elizabeth A. ‘The Medieval Temple as Material Archive: Historical Preservation and the Production of Knowledge at Mount Harsha.’ Archive Journal. 2017. https://www.archivejournal.net/essays/the-medieval-temple-as-material-archive/.

Dhaka, Ambika. ‘A fresh light on architectural and sculptural art of Shiva temple at Mount Harsha, Sikar.’ In Purā Jagat-J.P. Joshi Commemoration volume, edited by C Mangarbandhu, A.K. Sharma, B.R. Mani, G.S. Khwaja, 370–380. Delhi, 2001.

Dhaky, M. A, Michael Meister, and Krishna Deva, eds. Encyclopedia of Indian Temple Architecture North India: Period of Early Maturity c. AD 700-900. Vol. 2 Part 2. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991.