The Baroli Temples: A Glimpse of Pratihara Art and Architecture

Baroli group of temples is a complex comprising nine temples situated in Baroli village near the city of Rawatbhata, in Chittorgarh district, Rajasthan. This village is 30 miles away from Kota and it is situated on an elevated terrain along the eastern bank of the Chambal River. In this picturesque setting surrounding a natural spring, the early medieval temples were built around the 10th century CE. Listed as a protected monument under the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), Jodhpur Circle, these temples are enclosed within a complex, featuring two clusters. The first cluster is located near the entrance and has three temples, while the second is positioned at the rear side of the complex including five temples, remains of the foundation of a temple, a torana (ornamental gateway), a doorframe, and a water tank. A causeway links the two clusters. Temple 9 of the Baroli group is situated outside the enclosed complex, at a distance.

The temples include two Shiva temples, Sheshashayi Vishnu Temple, Trimurti Temple, Vamana Temple, Mahishasuramardini Temple, Ghateshwar Temple, and Ganesha Temple, and another Mahishasuramardini Temple is the one situated outside the boundary wall. One of the Shiva temples is situated in a water tank and includes the jali (lattice) work. Most of these temples are comprised of a garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum), antarala (vestibule), and a mandapa (pillared hall) on plan. On the vertical axis, all temples have a pitha (a small platform), vedibandha (basal mouldings), jangha (wall) and latina shikhara or the type of Nagara-style temple spire characterized by a square base with walls that slope inward, forming a curved, pointed top.

These temples are in different states of preservation but present a perfect example of the Pratihara art and architecture that flourished in the region during that period. These temples include some of the marvelous sculptural art which is a combination of elegance and aesthetics. These temples house some unique and large-scale sculptures such as the Trimurti, Nataraja, beautiful apsaras (celestial damsels) and mithunas (amourous couples), and interesting depictions of animals.

The Baroli group of temples are presently enclosed within a complex that has two clusters—the first is situated near the entrance, and the second at the backside of the complex. The image shows two temples from the first cluster which otherwise comprises three temples in total—two dedicated to Shiva and one to Sheshashayi Vishnu. The third temple is behind the Sheshashayi Vishnu Temple.
The Baroli group of temples are presently enclosed within a complex that has two clusters—the first is situated near the entrance, and the second at the backside of the complex. The image shows two temples from the first cluster which otherwise comprises three temples in total—two dedicated to Shiva and one to Sheshashayi Vishnu. The third temple is behind the Sheshashayi Vishnu Temple.
Shiva Temple (Temple 1) is part of the first cluster in the complex and comprises three temples. The temple is dedicated to Shiva and dates to the first quarter of the 10th century CE. It currently has a garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) and antarala (vestibule), but the foundation and architectural remains of the temple suggest that originally, on plan, it also had a mandapa (pillared hall) and a mukhamandapa (front porch).
Shiva Temple (Temple 1) is part of the first cluster in the complex and comprises three temples. The temple is dedicated to Shiva and dates to the first quarter of the 10th century CE. It currently has a garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) and antarala (vestibule), but the foundation and architectural remains of the temple suggest that originally, on plan, it also had a mandapa (pillared hall) and a mukhamandapa (front porch).
A view of the Shiva Temple (Temple 1) in Cluster 1 from the south, showing the vertical axis of the temple. It has a well-defined vedibandha (basal mouldings) comprising different mouldings such as the khura, kumbha (pot-shaped), antarapatta (recesses between mouldings), and kapotapalika (cyma recta moulding). It has a simple and plain jangha (wall), ornately carved varandika (moulded parapet), and shikhara (superstructure) which is in a dilapidated condition. The intact part of the shikhara reveals the brickwork marked with the chaitya (dormer window) arch design.
A view of the Shiva Temple (Temple 1) in Cluster 1 from the south, showing the vertical axis of the temple. It has a well-defined vedibandha (basal mouldings) comprising different mouldings such as the khura, kumbha (pot-shaped), antarapatta (recesses between mouldings), and kapotapalika (cyma recta moulding). It has a simple and plain jangha (wall), ornately carved varandika (moulded parapet), and shikhara (superstructure) which is in a dilapidated condition. The intact part of the shikhara reveals the brickwork marked with the chaitya (dormer window) arch design.
In the mandapa (pillared hall) of Shiva Temple (Temple 1), a small pit can be found on the proper left. The actual purpose of the pit is not known, but it is interesting to note because no other temple in this complex reveals a similar kind of structure on the floor.
In the mandapa (pillared hall) of Shiva Temple (Temple 1), a small pit can be found on the proper left. The actual purpose of the pit is not known, but it is interesting to note because no other temple in this complex reveals a similar kind of structure on the floor.
A closer view of the entrance of the Shiva Temple (Temple 1) in Cluster 1. The antarala (vestibule) of the temple is shallow and devoid of a niche or sculptures. The entrance gate of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) also shows minimal decoration. The lalatabimba (lintel) has no figure present.
A closer view of the entrance of the Shiva Temple (Temple 1) in Cluster 1. The antarala (vestibule) of the temple is shallow and devoid of a niche or sculptures. The entrance gate of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) also shows minimal decoration. The lalatabimba (lintel) has no figure present.
At the centre of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the Shiva Temple (Temple 1) in Cluster 1 a Shiva linga, without the yonipatta (womb-shaped base of the linga), is placed. The floor is not flat and shows the dilapidated condition of the temple. Sometimes the devotees worship the linga.
At the centre of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the Shiva Temple (Temple 1) in Cluster 1 a Shiva linga, without the yonipatta (womb-shaped base of the linga), is placed. The floor is not flat and shows the dilapidated condition of the temple. Sometimes the devotees worship the linga.
The garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the Shiva Temple (Temple 1) in Cluster 1 is a plain square chamber with a carved ceiling. The ceiling shows a full-blown flower with layered petals enclosed within a square frame.
The garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the Shiva Temple (Temple 1) in Cluster 1 is a plain square chamber with a carved ceiling. The ceiling shows a full-blown flower with layered petals enclosed within a square frame.
The shikhara (superstructure) of the Shiva Temple (Temple 1) in Cluster 1 is deteriorating, with a portion having already collapsed. The remaining part reveals brickwork with the chaitya (dormer window) arch design.
The shikhara (superstructure) of the Shiva Temple (Temple 1) in Cluster 1 is deteriorating, with a portion having already collapsed. The remaining part reveals brickwork with the chaitya (dormer window) arch design.
The Sheshashayi Vishnu Temple (Temple 2 in Cluster 1) is situated at the corner of the water tank, near Temple 3. This small north-facing structure features a shallow antarala (vestibule) and a small garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum).
The Sheshashayi Vishnu Temple (Temple 2 in Cluster 1) is situated at the corner of the water tank, near Temple 3. This small north-facing structure features a shallow antarala (vestibule) and a small garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum).
A view of an elevation of the Sheshashayi Vishnu Temple with basal mouldings, khura, kumbha (pot-shaped), kalasha (a pitcher), antarapatta (recesses between mouldings), and kapotapalika (cyma recta moulding). The jangha (wall) is plain, while the varandika (moulded parapet) consists of two kapotapalikas and an antarapatta, topped by a gaggarika. The shikhara (superstructure) above is severely damaged.
A view of an elevation of the Sheshashayi Vishnu Temple with basal mouldings, khura, kumbha (pot-shaped), kalasha (a pitcher), antarapatta (recesses between mouldings), and kapotapalika (cyma recta moulding). The jangha (wall) is plain, while the varandika (moulded parapet) consists of two kapotapalikas and an antarapatta, topped by a gaggarika. The shikhara (superstructure) above is severely damaged.
The Sheshashayi Vishnu Temple has an antarala (vestibule) which has empty niches on the lateral sides. The garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) has a door with multiple shakhas (vertical bands), but it lacks ornamentation and does not feature a divine figure on the lalatabimba (lintel).
The Sheshashayi Vishnu Temple has an antarala (vestibule) which has empty niches on the lateral sides. The garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) has a door with multiple shakhas (vertical bands), but it lacks ornamentation and does not feature a divine figure on the lalatabimba (lintel).
The garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) has a pedestal with a Shiva linga currently placed on it. Originally, the temple housed an image of Sheshashayi Vishnu, which is now placed in the Kota Museum.
The garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) has a pedestal with a Shiva linga currently placed on it. Originally, the temple housed an image of Sheshashayi Vishnu, which is now placed in the Kota Museum.
 The shikhara (superstructure) of the Sheshashayi Vishnu Temple is in a dilapidated state. One part of it features a miniature balcony with three female figures. One of the female figures is shown holding a mirror and combing her hair.
The shikhara (superstructure) of the Sheshashayi Vishnu Temple is in a dilapidated state. One part of it features a miniature balcony with three female figures. One of the female figures is shown holding a mirror and combing her hair.
Temple 3 in the Baroli group of temples is a Shiva Temple situated at the centre of a water tank. Due to its location within a tank, this temple is slightly lower than the other two temples. The tank has steps that lead to the centre, and a pathway on the east side provides access to the main entrance of the shrine.
Temple 3 in the Baroli group of temples is a Shiva Temple situated at the centre of a water tank. Due to its location within a tank, this temple is slightly lower than the other two temples. The tank has steps that lead to the centre, and a pathway on the east side provides access to the main entrance of the shrine.
The temple faces the east and has a mukhachatushki (four-faced entrance platform) on the east side and a garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) which is of the sarvatobhadra (open on all four cardinal directions) type, meaning the temple can be entered from all four directions.
The temple faces the east and has a mukhachatushki (four-faced entrance platform) on the east side and a garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) which is of the sarvatobhadra (open on all four cardinal directions) type, meaning the temple can be entered from all four directions.
 The temple has a pitha (a small platform) and vedibandha (basal mouldings) that includes a khura, kumbha (pot-shaped), kalasha (a pitcher), antarapatta (recesses between mouldings), and kapotapalikas (cyma recta mouldings). The jangha (wall) is plain, with the gates carved at its centre. The shikhara (superstructure) above the varandika (moulded parapet) features an anekandaka shikhara (multispired superstructure) with surasenaka (miniature spires) on all four sides.
The temple has a pitha (a small platform) and vedibandha (basal mouldings) that includes a khura, kumbha (pot-shaped), kalasha (a pitcher), antarapatta (recesses between mouldings), and kapotapalikas (cyma recta mouldings). The jangha (wall) is plain, with the gates carved at its centre. The shikhara (superstructure) above the varandika (moulded parapet) features an anekandaka shikhara (multispired superstructure) with surasenaka (miniature spires) on all four sides.
The jangha (wall) of the Shiva Temple (Temple 3) features plain pilasters projecting out of the surface, while the top portion is adorned with an ardhapadma (half-lotus motif) enclosed by a garland loop. Above the jangha, a varandika (moulded parapet) is placed, which features the antarapatta (recesses between mouldings) between two kapotapalikas (cyma recta moulding). Above the varandikas, miniature shikharas (spires) are placed which creates the anekandaka shikhara (multispired superstructure).
The jangha (wall) of the Shiva Temple (Temple 3) features plain pilasters projecting out of the surface, while the top portion is adorned with an ardhapadma (half-lotus motif) enclosed by a garland loop. Above the jangha, a varandika (moulded parapet) is placed, which features the antarapatta (recesses between mouldings) between two kapotapalikas (cyma recta moulding). Above the varandikas, miniature shikharas (spires) are placed which creates the anekandaka shikhara (multispired superstructure).
The shikhara (superstructure) of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the Shiva Temple (Temple 3) is severely damaged, but remains of the mulamajari (central or main spire) can still be seen, carved with the jala of miniature gavaksha (dormer window) motif. The karnaratha (decorative pilasters) of the present superstructure shows five bhumis (tiers), and the arrangement of the anga shikhara (minor spires) can be seen just above the varandikas (moulded parapet).
The shikhara (superstructure) of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the Shiva Temple (Temple 3) is severely damaged, but remains of the mulamajari (central or main spire) can still be seen, carved with the jala of miniature gavaksha (dormer window) motif. The karnaratha (decorative pilasters) of the present superstructure shows five bhumis (tiers), and the arrangement of the anga shikhara (minor spires) can be seen just above the varandikas (moulded parapet).
The floor of the mukhachatushki (four-faced entrance platform) of the Shiva Temple (Temple 3) shows marks of metal dowels, shedding light on the temple’s construction technique. Mortar was not used in these temples; instead, metal dowels were used to join the stone blocks and parts of the temple which provided the structural integrity of the entire edifice.
The floor of the mukhachatushki (four-faced entrance platform) of the Shiva Temple (Temple 3) shows marks of metal dowels, shedding light on the temple’s construction technique. Mortar was not used in these temples; instead, metal dowels were used to join the stone blocks and parts of the temple which provided the structural integrity of the entire edifice.
The garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the Shiva Temple (Temple 3) is a small square structure housing a Shiva linga at the centre. The rear wall is closed by a screen, which is also broken. The ceiling of the sanctum is also simple, featuring a square within a square.
The garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the Shiva Temple (Temple 3) is a small square structure housing a Shiva linga at the centre. The rear wall is closed by a screen, which is also broken. The ceiling of the sanctum is also simple, featuring a square within a square.
The second cluster of the temple complex includes the Ghateshwar Temple, Mahishasuramardini Temple, Vamana Temple, and Sadashiva Temple. Additionally, a detached torana (ornamental gateway) and doorframe are found within the complex. The complex also houses multiple Shiva lingas arranged in rows and a kund (water tank).
The second cluster of the temple complex includes the Ghateshwar Temple, Mahishasuramardini Temple, Vamana Temple, and Sadashiva Temple. Additionally, a detached torana (ornamental gateway) and doorframe are found within the complex. The complex also houses multiple Shiva lingas arranged in rows and a kund (water tank).
Temple 4 is dedicated to Sadashiva. It has a large bust of Maheshamurti in the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum). It faces east and presently has a shallow antarala (vestibule) and a small garbhagriha. Originally, it included a mandapa (pillared hall) which has collapsed, although its foundation remains intact.
Temple 4 is dedicated to Sadashiva. It has a large bust of Maheshamurti in the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum). It faces east and presently has a shallow antarala (vestibule) and a small garbhagriha. Originally, it included a mandapa (pillared hall) which has collapsed, although its foundation remains intact.
The Sadashiva Temple has a pitha (a small platform) and a vedibandha (basal mouldings), consisting of khura, kumbha (pot-shaped), kalasha (a pitcher), antarapattika (recesses between moulding), and kapotapalika (cyma recta moulding). The jangha (wall) is plain but adorned with a central horizontal band of kirtimukha (face of glory). The superstructure of the temple is of the latina style (mono-spired).
The Sadashiva Temple has a pitha (a small platform) and a vedibandha (basal mouldings), consisting of khura, kumbha (pot-shaped), kalasha (a pitcher), antarapattika (recesses between moulding), and kapotapalika (cyma recta moulding). The jangha (wall) is plain but adorned with a central horizontal band of kirtimukha (face of glory). The superstructure of the temple is of the latina style (mono-spired).
The lintels above the shakhas (vertical bands) of the Sadashiva Temple depict a dancing Shiva at the centre accompanied by a musician and a dancer. Goddesses are shown on the extreme ends. Shiva is portrayed as ten-armed, holding an akshamala (rosary), khatvanga (staff with a skull), damaru (drum), snake, kapala (skull), and trishula (trident), with his front two arms making dance a gesture. The goddesses are depicted as four-armed, wearing a jatamukuta (a crown of matted hair). They hold an akshamala and kamandalu (water pot), while their other hands hold their respective attributes.
The lintels above the shakhas (vertical bands) of the Sadashiva Temple depict a dancing Shiva at the centre accompanied by a musician and a dancer. Goddesses are shown on the extreme ends. Shiva is portrayed as ten-armed, holding an akshamala (rosary), khatvanga (staff with a skull), damaru (drum), snake, kapala (skull), and trishula (trident), with his front two arms making dance a gesture. The goddesses are depicted as four-armed, wearing a jatamukuta (a crown of matted hair). They hold an akshamala and kamandalu (water pot), while their other hands hold their respective attributes.
The entrance gate to the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the Sadashiva Temple features plain shakhas (vertical bands), while the bottom part depicts river goddesses Ganga and Yamuna, as well as Shiva dvarapalas (door guardians). Ganga is shown on the proper right, holding a water pot, standing on her vahana (mount), a makara (crocodile). Yamuna is shown holding a water pot and standing on her mount, a kachhapa (tortoise). The dvarapalas are depicted holding weapons.
The entrance gate to the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the Sadashiva Temple features plain shakhas (vertical bands), while the bottom part depicts river goddesses Ganga and Yamuna, as well as Shiva dvarapalas (door guardians). Ganga is shown on the proper right, holding a water pot, standing on her vahana (mount), a makara (crocodile). Yamuna is shown holding a water pot and standing on her mount, a kachhapa (tortoise). The dvarapalas are depicted holding weapons.
The shikhara (superstructure) exhibits an integrated jala of chaitya arches but the beauty of the shikhara lies on its frontal face which depicts an arrangement of gavaksha (dormer window) arches topped by a kirtimukha (face of glory), along with a portrayal of elegantly carved makaras (crocodiles) and majestic faces of elephants on the sides. Additionally, floral motifs and shankhas (conch shells) are also used to decorate the frontal façade of the shikhara.
The shikhara (superstructure) exhibits an integrated jala of chaitya arches but the beauty of the shikhara lies on its frontal face which depicts an arrangement of gavaksha (dormer window) arches topped by a kirtimukha (face of glory), along with a portrayal of elegantly carved makaras (crocodiles) and majestic faces of elephants on the sides. Additionally, floral motifs and shankhas (conch shells) are also used to decorate the frontal façade of the shikhara.
The garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) is a small chamber where a large bust of Sadashiva or Maheshamurti is installed. The bust depicts three faces. The frontal face is of Tatpurusha, which is completely rubbed off. On the proper right, Aghora is portrayed, representing the aggressive aspect, while the left face is Vamadeva, reflecting the feminine aspect. The Aghora face wears a jatamukuta (a crown of matted hair) adorned with skulls and snakes. He has raised, arched eyebrows, large bulging eyes, and a third eye on the forehead. The deity is depicted with fangs, but one can notice the smile on its face, and holding a snake in his hand. The right half of Vamadeva’s face is also chipped off. The deity is shown with a jatamukuta featuring kirtimukhas (face of glory) and rounded curls. The deity has bow-shaped eyebrows, beautiful eyes, and a third eye on the forehead.
The garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) is a small chamber where a large bust of Sadashiva or Maheshamurti is installed. The bust depicts three faces. The frontal face is of Tatpurusha, which is completely rubbed off. On the proper right, Aghora is portrayed, representing the aggressive aspect, while the left face is Vamadeva, reflecting the feminine aspect. The Aghora face wears a jatamukuta (a crown of matted hair) adorned with skulls and snakes. He has raised, arched eyebrows, large bulging eyes, and a third eye on the forehead. The deity is depicted with fangs, but one can notice the smile on its face, and holding a snake in his hand. The right half of Vamadeva’s face is also chipped off. The deity is shown with a jatamukuta featuring kirtimukhas (face of glory) and rounded curls. The deity has bow-shaped eyebrows, beautiful eyes, and a third eye on the forehead.
The temple is dedicated to Vamana Vishnu and is the smallest temple in the Baroli group of temples. Situated next to the Mahishasuramardini Temple, the temple faces east and has a shallow antarala (vestibule) and a small garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) on plan.
The temple is dedicated to Vamana Vishnu and is the smallest temple in the Baroli group of temples. Situated next to the Mahishasuramardini Temple, the temple faces east and has a shallow antarala (vestibule) and a small garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) on plan.
The temple has a vedibandha (basal mouldings) and a plain, unornamented jangha (wall) which is of the tri-anga (three planes of an offset) type. The shikhara (superstructure) of the temple has completely vanished, leaving only a flat roof above the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum).
The temple has a vedibandha (basal mouldings) and a plain, unornamented jangha (wall) which is of the tri-anga (three planes of an offset) type. The shikhara (superstructure) of the temple has completely vanished, leaving only a flat roof above the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum).
Vamana is depicted as a dwarf with a potbelly in the Vamana Temple. He had four arms which are all broken presently. He is heavily bejewelled and wears a long vanamala (forest flowers garland). He is accompanied by six attendants who can be seen at the bottom. There are two more figures on his sides, near his arms. Notably, miniature niches at the top of the sculpture house representations of the Hindu trinity; Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesha.
Vamana is depicted as a dwarf with a potbelly in the Vamana Temple. He had four arms which are all broken presently. He is heavily bejewelled and wears a long vanamala (forest flowers garland). He is accompanied by six attendants who can be seen at the bottom. There are two more figures on his sides, near his arms. Notably, miniature niches at the top of the sculpture house representations of the Hindu trinity; Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesha.
Temple 6 is dedicated to Mahishasuramardini. The temple is situated next to the Vamana Temple and to the right side of the Ghateshwar Temple. It is one of the well-preserved temples and biggest temples in the complex, with all its parts intact. The temple is east-facing and consists of a mukhamandapa (front porch), antarala (vestibule), and a garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum).
Temple 6 is dedicated to Mahishasuramardini. The temple is situated next to the Vamana Temple and to the right side of the Ghateshwar Temple. It is one of the well-preserved temples and biggest temples in the complex, with all its parts intact. The temple is east-facing and consists of a mukhamandapa (front porch), antarala (vestibule), and a garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum).
 The Mahishasuramardini Temple has a pitha (a small platform) and well-defined base mouldings, with a plain jangha (wall) adorned with only a decorative band at its upper part. The varandika (moulded parapet) supports the latina shikhara (mono-spired) with navabhumis (nine tiers). The shikhara (superstructure) is intricately carved with the jala of chaitya arches, and at its apex, it features amalasaraka a segmented or notched stone disk), chandrika (are a series of amalaka discs), another amalasaraka topped by a kalasha (pitcher shaped finial).
The Mahishasuramardini Temple has a pitha (a small platform) and well-defined base mouldings, with a plain jangha (wall) adorned with only a decorative band at its upper part. The varandika (moulded parapet) supports the latina shikhara (mono-spired) with navabhumis (nine tiers). The shikhara (superstructure) is intricately carved with the jala of chaitya arches, and at its apex, it features amalasaraka a segmented or notched stone disk), chandrika (are a series of amalaka discs), another amalasaraka topped by a kalasha (pitcher shaped finial).
The mukhamandapa (front porch) of the Mahishasuramardini Temple, has two pillars at the front and two pilasters at the back. At the top of the shaft, an abacus is placed, carved with divine figures and female attendants. The mukhamandapa leads to the antarala (vestibule), which further leads to the entrance door of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum). The door is carved and depicts Maheshwari, Brahmani, and Vaishnavi on the lintel.
The mukhamandapa (front porch) of the Mahishasuramardini Temple, has two pillars at the front and two pilasters at the back. At the top of the shaft, an abacus is placed, carved with divine figures and female attendants. The mukhamandapa leads to the antarala (vestibule), which further leads to the entrance door of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum). The door is carved and depicts Maheshwari, Brahmani, and Vaishnavi on the lintel.
The sanctum of the temple has a sculpture of Mahishasuramardini sculpture. The multi-armed Goddess is shown slaying Mahisha (the buffalo demon), who is depicted in zoomorphic form. Presently, her head and arms are broken. She is accompanied by a few figures who are also seen killing asuras (demons). Her vahana (mount) is also depicted.
The sanctum of the temple has a sculpture of Mahishasuramardini sculpture. The multi-armed Goddess is shown slaying Mahisha (the buffalo demon), who is depicted in zoomorphic form. Presently, her head and arms are broken. She is accompanied by a few figures who are also seen killing asuras (demons). Her vahana (mount) is also depicted.
The shikhara (superstructure) of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) is carved in the latina (mono-spired) style with navabhumis (nine tiers). The shikhara is intricately carved with the jala of chaitya arches. A dhvajadharaka (flag bearer), a structure to hold the dhavja (flag), is also depicted at the top, on the rear side of the shikhara.
The shikhara (superstructure) of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) is carved in the latina (mono-spired) style with navabhumis (nine tiers). The shikhara is intricately carved with the jala of chaitya arches. A dhvajadharaka (flag bearer), a structure to hold the dhavja (flag), is also depicted at the top, on the rear side of the shikhara.
Temple 8 in the Baroli group of temples is a small temple dedicated to Ganesha and faces south. The temple has a garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) and a small kapili. The shikhara (superstructure) of the temple has collapsed.
Temple 8 in the Baroli group of temples is a small temple dedicated to Ganesha and faces south. The temple has a garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) and a small kapili. The shikhara (superstructure) of the temple has collapsed.
The temple features architectural elements such as khura, kumbha (pot-shaped), kalasha (a pitcher), and kapotapalikas (cyma recta moulding), upon which a plain jangha (wall) rises. Above the jangha, a varandika (moulded parapet) is placed which supports the shikhara (superstructure), adorned with bricks marked with chaitya arches.
The temple features architectural elements such as khura, kumbha (pot-shaped), kalasha (a pitcher), and kapotapalikas (cyma recta moulding), upon which a plain jangha (wall) rises. Above the jangha, a varandika (moulded parapet) is placed which supports the shikhara (superstructure), adorned with bricks marked with chaitya arches.
The entrance to the Ganesha Temple is through the antarala (vestibule), a small passage featuring a gateway adorned with pilasters. Along the east and west walls of the antarala empty niches are visible.
The entrance to the Ganesha Temple is through the antarala (vestibule), a small passage featuring a gateway adorned with pilasters. Along the east and west walls of the antarala empty niches are visible.
The entrance door of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the Ganesha Temple features multiple shakhas (vertical bands), which are plain. The garbhagriha is a small square chamber with the idol of Ganesha. The sanctum is devoid of any ornamentation except for the bharvahaka (load or weight bearer).
The entrance door of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the Ganesha Temple features multiple shakhas (vertical bands), which are plain. The garbhagriha is a small square chamber with the idol of Ganesha. The sanctum is devoid of any ornamentation except for the bharvahaka (load or weight bearer).
The garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the temple houses a sculpture of Ganesha. He is shown dancing gracefully. Although he originally had multiple arms, only the upper two remain intact, holding a snake. A halo in the form of a full-blown flower surrounds his form.
The garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the temple houses a sculpture of Ganesha. He is shown dancing gracefully. Although he originally had multiple arms, only the upper two remain intact, holding a snake. A halo in the form of a full-blown flower surrounds his form.
The remains of a foundation of another temple have been discovered within the complex. The temple that once occupied this space consisted of a garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) and an antarala (vestibule). Currently, there is a Shiva linga placed on the floor of the garbhagriha.
The remains of a foundation of another temple have been discovered within the complex. The temple that once occupied this space consisted of a garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) and an antarala (vestibule). Currently, there is a Shiva linga placed on the floor of the garbhagriha.
The temple complex has an ornate torana (ornamental gateway). While the arch of the torana is broken, the pillars are still well-preserved. Each pillar depicts three female figures and one male figure on the lower octagonal part of the shaft. The upper portion of the pillars is adorned with loops and chains of bells.
The temple complex has an ornate torana (ornamental gateway). While the arch of the torana is broken, the pillars are still well-preserved. Each pillar depicts three female figures and one male figure on the lower octagonal part of the shaft. The upper portion of the pillars is adorned with loops and chains of bells.
The shaft of the torana (ornamental gateway) displays four figures on each of its four sides of the octagonal base, while the remaining four sides are left plain. Each side of the shaft features three female figures and one male figure. One of the female figures is shown standing, holding a bowl and from her other hand, she gracefully holds her drapery. The figure embodies feminine beauty, characterized by her curvaceous figure, elegant hairdo, and jewellery.
The shaft of the torana (ornamental gateway) displays four figures on each of its four sides of the octagonal base, while the remaining four sides are left plain. Each side of the shaft features three female figures and one male figure. One of the female figures is shown standing, holding a bowl and from her other hand, she gracefully holds her drapery. The figure embodies feminine beauty, characterized by her curvaceous figure, elegant hairdo, and jewellery.
The male figure on one of the pillars of the torana (ornamental gateway) depicts a standing male figure standing with folded hands near his chest. This figure is likely a deity as he wears a crown and heavy jewellery and has a mark on his chest commonly found on Jaina deities. His charming visage features raised eyebrows, a mustache, and a beard.
The male figure on one of the pillars of the torana (ornamental gateway) depicts a standing male figure standing with folded hands near his chest. This figure is likely a deity as he wears a crown and heavy jewellery and has a mark on his chest commonly found on Jaina deities. His charming visage features raised eyebrows, a mustache, and a beard.
The male figure on the other pillar of the torana (ornamental gateway) is depicted in the same posture with folded hands. He is also adorned with heavy jewellery and bears the distinctive mark of Jaina deities on his chest. He is accompanied by an attendant.
The male figure on the other pillar of the torana (ornamental gateway) is depicted in the same posture with folded hands. He is also adorned with heavy jewellery and bears the distinctive mark of Jaina deities on his chest. He is accompanied by an attendant.
In the Baroli group of temples, remains of an intricately carved doorframe can also be found, very close to the torana (ornamental gateway). The doorframe depicts divine figures which include Shiva, Brahma and Vishnu, along with river goddesses, navagrahas (nine planets), saptamatrikas (seven mother goddesses), and dvarapalas (door guardians).
In the Baroli group of temples, remains of an intricately carved doorframe can also be found, very close to the torana (ornamental gateway). The doorframe depicts divine figures which include Shiva, Brahma and Vishnu, along with river goddesses, navagrahas (nine planets), saptamatrikas (seven mother goddesses), and dvarapalas (door guardians).
The lintel of the doorframe depicts a seated, four-armed Shiva at the centre. On the proper right of the torana (ornamental gateway), a three-faced Brahma is shown standing, folding hands in veneration. On the other side, Vishnu is shown standing, holding a gaya (mace) and a chakra (discus) in his upper hands, while his front arms are joined in anjali hasta, in veneration to Shiva. Between these three divine figures, four horizontal bands are carved depicting gandharvas (celestial musicians), devotees, and ascetics worshipping the linga. At the topmost band, on the proper right side, matrikas (mother goddesses) are depicted along with Ganesha, while on the proper left side, navagrahas (nine planets) are represented.
The lintel of the doorframe depicts a seated, four-armed Shiva at the centre. On the proper right of the torana (ornamental gateway), a three-faced Brahma is shown standing, folding hands in veneration. On the other side, Vishnu is shown standing, holding a gaya (mace) and a chakra (discus) in his upper hands, while his front arms are joined in anjali hasta, in veneration to Shiva. Between these three divine figures, four horizontal bands are carved depicting gandharvas (celestial musicians), devotees, and ascetics worshipping the linga. At the topmost band, on the proper right side, matrikas (mother goddesses) are depicted along with Ganesha, while on the proper left side, navagrahas (nine planets) are represented.
The doorframe is divided into panchshakhas (five vertical bands). At the bottom, the river goddesses Ganga and Yamuna, are depicted along with a Shaiva dvarapala (door guardian). The shakhas (vertical bands) display flower bands and moving outward the shakhas are carved with single male figures, mithunas (amorous couples), putrajaya (leaf motif), and vyalas (mythical lion-like hybrid creatures).
The doorframe is divided into panchshakhas (five vertical bands). At the bottom, the river goddesses Ganga and Yamuna, are depicted along with a Shaiva dvarapala (door guardian). The shakhas (vertical bands) display flower bands and moving outward the shakhas are carved with single male figures, mithunas (amorous couples), putrajaya (leaf motif), and vyalas (mythical lion-like hybrid creatures).
A row of Shiva lingas can be seen near the Ghateshwar Temple. There are seven Shiva lingas placed on plain pedestals. According to the temple priest, these Shiva lingas were set up by the families of the earlier priests after their deaths, and they are said to be their samadhis (memorial shrines).
A row of Shiva lingas can be seen near the Ghateshwar Temple. There are seven Shiva lingas placed on plain pedestals. According to the temple priest, these Shiva lingas were set up by the families of the earlier priests after their deaths, and they are said to be their samadhis (memorial shrines).
There is a platform on which a sculpture of an unidentified deity is placed. According to the locals, the deity covered in vermilion is Hanumana.
There is a platform on which a sculpture of an unidentified deity is placed. According to the locals, the deity covered in vermilion is Hanumana.
Many metal padukas (footwear) are placed on the platform on which Hanumana is placed. These padukas are offered by the devotees.
Many metal padukas (footwear) are placed on the platform on which Hanumana is placed. These padukas are offered by the devotees.
The complex features a kund (water tank) adjacent to the Ganesha Temple. This tank, shaped like a cross, is equipped with steps to reach inside the tank.
The complex features a kund (water tank) adjacent to the Ganesha Temple. This tank, shaped like a cross, is equipped with steps to reach inside the tank.
Closer view of the cross-shaped kund (water tank).
Closer view of the cross-shaped kund (water tank).
Temple 9 is dedicated to Mahishasuramardini. Presently, the temple is in a dilapidated condition, with many parts of the temple scattered around due to collapses. The temple faces west and comprises a garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum), antarala (vestibule), and a mukhamandapa (front porch). Unfortunately, the mandapa (pillared hall) and the antarala have collapsed.
Temple 9 is dedicated to Mahishasuramardini. Presently, the temple is in a dilapidated condition, with many parts of the temple scattered around due to collapses. The temple faces west and comprises a garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum), antarala (vestibule), and a mukhamandapa (front porch). Unfortunately, the mandapa (pillared hall) and the antarala have collapsed.
The temple features a well-defined pitha (a small platform) and vedibandha (basal mouldings). Its walls are plain, adorned with pilasters topped by the grassamukha (face of glory) band. The shikhara (superstructure) is severely damaged.
The temple features a well-defined pitha (a small platform) and vedibandha (basal mouldings). Its walls are plain, adorned with pilasters topped by the grassamukha (face of glory) band. The shikhara (superstructure) is severely damaged.
In the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the Mahishasuramardini Temple (Temple 9), a pedestal holds a sculpture of a Goddess. The Goddess is worshipped by the locals, as indicated by the vermilion on her face and the clothes that the sculpture is wrapped in.
In the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) of the Mahishasuramardini Temple (Temple 9), a pedestal holds a sculpture of a Goddess. The Goddess is worshipped by the locals, as indicated by the vermilion on her face and the clothes that the sculpture is wrapped in.